to excavate
/ˈɛkskəˌveɪt/
verb
to dig a hole or make a channel in the ground
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Examples

1So, we excavated.
2So far, only a fraction of the site has been excavated.
3But the diggers excavate intricate tunnels directly underneath the fresh dung pile.
4He is excavating a trench.
5In the sacred rocks of Rantepao, the workers excavate new spaces in which to bury Mayanna alongside his ancestors.
facing
/ˈfeɪsɪŋ/
noun
an outer layer that coats a wall surface
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Examples

1The ideal setup for solar panels in the Boston area is a southern facing roof at an angle of 42°.
2You want the glossy side facing outwards.
3Look at the facing of the column.
4Here's a related point, lapel facings.
5Meanwhile, the lapels of a standard suit almost never have any type of special facing.
foundation
/faʊnˈdeɪʃən/
noun
a hard layer of cement, stone, etc. that serves as the underground support of a building
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Examples

1Foundations have to step up more.
2Baseball's foundation, the interaction between pitcher and batter, leaves room for both crime and punishment.
3So increasingly, people are setting up family foundations.
4So we have foundation now.
5Put on foundation.
frame
/ˈfɹeɪm/
noun
the structure of a building, piece of furniture, vehicle, etc. that supports and shapes it
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Examples

1Many investors frame gold as a perfect hedge for inflation.
2The film frames the narrative through Wilfred's telling of events.
3Mistake number fourteen is framing your conversations around negativity.
4Its long mane frames its bare face, thus the feline namesake.
5Frames the spaceship Earth ball.
girder
/ˈɡɝdɝ/
noun
a long and thick metal bar used to build bridges or form the frame of large structures such as buildings
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Examples

1The panel was smaller than a box girder, lighter and easier to stack.
2The girders are concealed within the walls of the ship and serve as the vessel’s primary loadbearing structure.
3The reconstructed dome is not made of bricks: its frame is composed of 24 two-tonne steel girders.
4Structural iron and steel workers connect steel columns and girders for tall structures.
5You have to hire a structural engineer, install supports, girders, and road decks.
glass
/ˈɡɫæs/
noun
a hard material that is often clear and is used for making windows, bottles, etc.
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Examples

1They are all wearing 3D glasses.
2Lots of people wear glasses!
3- Diamonds can cut glass.
4Diamonds can cut glass.
5Sometimes he wore glasses, gold-rimmed glasses.
to glaze
/ˈɡɫeɪz/
verb
to insert a piece of glass into a building's window frame
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Examples

1The gochujang honey glazed pork belly.
2Glaze the doughnut.
3Glaze is done!
4Sheets of steel on top of which rest gold glazed porcelain pools.
5A favorite in our household, the miso glazed Iceland cod.
ground plan
/ɡɹˈaʊnd plˈæn/
noun
a plan belonging to the ground floor of a building

Examples

to gut
/ˈɡət/
verb
to completely destroy the inside of a room, building, or vehicle, particularly by fire
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Examples

1After a few hours, your gut and brain begin their conversation again.
2It means guts.
3The World Cup finals game was so "gut."
4Particularly gut health.
5It takes guts.
hod
/hˈɑːd/
noun
a box that has a long handle and workers can put it on their shoulders to carry bricks
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Examples

1A t Teai W Isoer Swsmpraso Sancelmco is HOD
2This method is something I learned while living with the hods in Tanzania, what they explained to me this accomplished was it created a bed of coals in the quickest way possible.
3Fourth year actually was the most difficult to pass because my HOD gave me a warning.
4Now, that's a cool model, under the shade I flourish, I mean who wants to be out in the hod humid sun all day.
5Here, despite the Cuman leanings of King Ladislaus IV, himself of Cuman descent, a Cuman uprising rocked the Kingdom, culminating in a battle on lake Hod in 1282.
insulated
/ˈɪnsəˌɫeɪtəd/, /ˈɪnsəˌɫeɪtɪd/
adjective
covered with a substance that does not let heat, electricity, or sound to enter or escape through it
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Examples

1And then you've got this insulated capsule.
2I've got my trusty insulated bag.
3It's extremely well insulated.
4It will keep in an insulated lunch bag for several hours.
5They always have an insulated thing for I think, formula and stuff.
insulation
/ˌɪnsəˈɫeɪʃən/
noun
the act of covering something with a substance that does not let heat, electricity, or sound to enter or escape through
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Examples

1So that gives insulation.
2Most long distance power lines don’t use insulation around the conductors themselves.
3The floor is also pink insulation.
4We used Roxul insulation.
5You will need Insulation
joist
/ˈdʒɔɪst/
noun
a metal or wooden thick bar used in buildings to support a ceiling or floor
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Examples

1- Ah, there's a joist like right here.
2and then we can cut the hole, depending on where the joists are.
3So just follow the joist.
4Attach the brackets to the joists.
5Measure the ceiling joist and use an eye bolt that is two to three inches longer than the joist.
to knock down
/nˈɑːk dˈaʊn/
verb
to destroy a structure such as building or wall
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Examples

1A single storm could probably knock down a whole swath of them.
2- Knocked down the bodies.
3Chases' butt just knocked down four other containers.
4Knocked down.
5Knock down open shot. -
to knock together
/nˈɑːk təɡˈɛðɚ/
verb
to make something quickly and carelessly

Examples

ladder
/ˈɫædɝ/
noun
a piece of equipment with a set of steps that are connected to two long bars, used for climbing up and down a height
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Examples

1- Some people use ladders.
2- Say ladder backwards.
3Ladders are limiting.
4Things like wingback chairs and adjustable back sofas, ladder back chairs for dining.
5By the way, snakes seriously outnumbered ladders in the original game!
to level
/ˈɫɛvəɫ/
verb
to destroy a building, area, etc. completely
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Examples

1The high yield market is now at bubble levels.
2You need level two movement?
3Oh yas, level two fitness skill.
4Level one pet training skill!
5So level three was impossible.
marble
/ˈmɑɹbəɫ/
noun
a type of hard smooth rock that is mostly white in color and has colored lines, which is used as building material or in making statues
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Examples

1The court is marble.
2Marbles fit in the mouth.
3Number four, marbled cone snail.
4Marble, who doesn't love marble?
5My phone case is marble.
masonry
/ˈmeɪsənɹi/
noun
stones or bricks that a building or wall is made of
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Examples

1So I joined masonry for a few reasons.
2And we technically call this polygonal masonry.
34x4's on masonry blocks.
4You see the polygonal masonry blocks.
5And note, your ashlar masonry, your opus quadratum, and the use of headers and stretchers in this wall, the wall of the city of Pompeii.
mortar
/ˈmɔɹtɝ/
noun
a substance that is a mixture of sand, cement, and water, used for fixing bricks and stones in a building
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Examples

1At the time my position was a mortar.
2And he saved that mortar.
3You love a mortar.
4Then mix mortar in your wheelbarrow.
5- We were mortared.
to pave
/ˈpeɪv/
verb
to cover the surface of a ground with flat bricks, stones, or concrete
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Examples

1The discovery paved the way for the development of the atomic bomb in the United States.
2Paving a road.
3In West Africa, lack of medical resources and decades of war paved the way.
4Emergency medicine paved the way in residency admissions with the Standardized Letter of Evaluation, or SLOE.
5Pave your own way!
pipework
/pˈaɪpwɜːk/
noun
the pipes of a building or machine that carry water, gas, or oil
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Examples

1There's the joinery skills required to make wooden pipework.
2Some bathrooms are windowless which make them more robust and most have strong framing and pipework in the walls which can hold together better.
3Installing your ENHET bathroom Preparing the room Prepare the room by making sure your walls and floors are even and suitable for supporting the bathroom furniture Make sure that the tiles pipework and electrical outlets are in place according to your plan You may need professional help in order to meet the plumbing and electrical regulations in your country Now check the walls to make sure that they’re strong enough to support your bathroom furniture Find the highest point of the floor and mark it on the wall
plan
/ˈpɫæn/
noun
a drawing of a building, city, etc. that shows its position, size, or shape in details
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Examples

1Marketing is a company's plan for selling a product.
2The company's marketing plan will be aimed at the parents, specifically the mothers.
3You guys, none of this was planned at all!
4- Planned my speech.
5The kids are planning this restaurant for our Valentine's Day feast.
planning permission
/plˈænɪŋ pɚmˈɪʃən/
noun
a formal approval by a local authority to construct or change a building

Examples

plaster
/ˈpɫæstɝ/
noun
a material with a soft texture that is a combination of sand, water, and lime which is used to cover walls and ceilings to smooth their surface
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Examples

1Newspapers, science journals, and popular magazines around the world plastered it across their pages.
2Plaster was flying off the wall.
3His name is plastered on three sides of the monument.
4And it's all hand fluted plaster.
5So we have plasters.
to plaster
/ˈpɫæstɝ/
verb
to cover a wall, ceiling, etc. with a soft usually white material that is made of sand, water, and lime in order to smooth its surface
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Examples

1Newspapers, science journals, and popular magazines around the world plastered it across their pages.
2Plaster was flying off the wall.
3His name is plastered on three sides of the monument.
4And it's all hand fluted plaster.
5So we have plasters.
plasterboard
/ˈpɫæstɝˌbɔɹd/
noun
a building material consists of a layer of plaster placed between two sheets of thick paper, which is used to cover walls and ceilings
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Examples

1Can we start with like a plasterboard wall and move on from there?
plate glass
/plˈeɪt ɡlˈæs/
noun
a thick high quality sheet of glass used for windows of shops or doors

Examples

plumbing
/ˈpɫəmɪŋ/
noun
the system of pipes for the distribution of water in a building
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Examples

1Plumbing is set in similar grooves.
2So you put in your own plumbing?
3Architects place plumbing and telephones.
4So have you ever done any plumbing?
5It had no plumbing.
to pull down
/pˈʊl dˈaʊn/
verb
to completely knock down or destroy a building
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Examples

1In the Americas, ground sloths the size of elephants pulled down trees with their claws.
2- White mask pulled down.
3Link, please pull down the screen.
4Pull down that sleeve.
5Now, pull down this lever.
to raze
/ˈɹeɪz/
verb
to completely demolish a building, city, etc.
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Examples

1Afterwards, the capital was razed to the ground.
2An area of 400,000 square meters was razed.
3The whole place was just absolutely razed.
4in 1067, Antiochia, Melitene and Caesarea were razed by the Seljuqs.
5They raze villages and that's the end of that.
to rebuild
/ɹiˈbɪɫd/
verb
to build something once again, after it has been destroyed or severely damaged
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Examples

1rebuilt the United States military.
2However, both sides quickly rebuilt.
3Rebuild the communities?
4The passion rebuilds the world for the youth.
5You rebuild the entire ship.
to reconstruct
/ˌɹikənˈstɹəkt/
verb
to make or build something once again after it has been destroyed or damaged
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Examples

1They're reconstructing their history.
2Our social institutions will be reconstructed.
3and they just completely reconstructed Carla Bruni's face on top of her face.
4From these two items, the story of the corpse was reconstructed.
5We reconstructed our plates.
reconstruction
/ˌɹikənˈstɹəkʃən/
noun
the activity or process of making or building something once again after it has been destroyed or damaged
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Examples

1Reconstruction was a failure.
2The classic example of this, of course, is reconstruction.
3Here's another reconstruction.
4Reconstruction was utterly radical.
5Reconstruction was a very violent time.

Great!

You've reviewed all the words in this lesson!