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roofing
/ˈɹufɪŋ/
noun
the process of constructing the roof of a building
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plasterwork
/ˈpɫæstɝˌwɝk/
noun
the dry usually white mixture of sand, water, and lime that coats the surface of a wall or ceiling, particularly in decorative patterns
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wrecking ball
/ɹˈɛkɪŋ bˈɔːl/
noun
a heavy metal ball hanging from a crane that is struck against a building to destroy it
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bricklaying
/bɹˈɪkleɪɪŋ/
noun
the activity or job of using bricks to build walls or buildings
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bulldozer
/ˈbʊɫˌdoʊzɝ/
noun
a large, powerful vehicle with a wide steel blade at its front that is used to destroy buildings or move earth
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digger
/ˈdɪɡɝ/
noun
a machine used for digging earth
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erection
/ɪˈɹɛkʃən/
noun
the act of building a structure or placing it upright
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foundation
/faʊnˈdeɪʃən/
noun
a hard layer of cement, stone, etc. that serves as the underground support of a building
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facing
/ˈfeɪsɪŋ/
noun
an outer layer that coats a wall surface
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frame
/ˈfɹeɪm/
noun
the structure of a building, piece of furniture, vehicle, etc. that supports and shapes it
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hod
/hˈɑːd/
noun
a box that has a long handle and workers can put it on their shoulders to carry bricks
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masonry
/ˈmeɪsənɹi/
noun
the construction method of building structures using individual units (such as bricks, stones, or concrete blocks) that are bound together with mortar
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planning permission
/plˈænɪŋ pɚmˈɪʃən/
noun
a formal approval by a local authority to construct or change a building
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reconstruction
/ˌɹikənˈstɹəkʃən/
noun
the activity or process of making or building something once again after it has been destroyed or damaged
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scaffolding
/ˈskæfəɫdɪŋ/
noun
a structure consisting of metal poles with wooden planks on them that are put against a building so that workers can climb it or stand on it while constructing the building
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site
/ˈsaɪt/
noun
an area of land on which something is, was, or will be constructed
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skeleton
/ˈskɛɫətən/
noun
the main support for a bridge, building, etc.
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structure
/ˈstɹəktʃɝ/
noun
anything that is built from several parts, such as a house, bridge, etc.
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substructure
/sˈʌbstɹʌktʃɚ/
noun
a structure or base that is situated beneath another structure to provide support
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pointing
/ˈpɔɪntɪŋ/
noun
the process of filling the gaps or joints between bricks, stones, or other masonry units with mortar or a specialized material to enhance the structural integrity and appearance of a wall or structure
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tensile structure
/tˈɛnsəl stɹˈʌktʃɚ/
noun
flexible architectural construction using tensioned materials to create lightweight and visually striking structures
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tie rod
/tˈaɪ ɹˈɑːd/
noun
a structural component used in construction that consists of a long, threaded rod or bar, often made of steel, designed to provide stability and resist tension by connecting and anchoring different parts of a building or structure
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beam
/ˈbim/
noun
a long bar of iron or metal that supports the weight of a building
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cantilever
/kˈæntᵻlˌiːvɚ/
noun
a long metal or wooden bar that is fixed to a wall at just one end and sticks out of it, used to hold a structure such as a bridge or shelf in place
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girder
/ˈɡɝdɝ/
noun
a long and thick metal bar used to build bridges or form the frame of large structures such as buildings
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woodwork
/ˈwʊdˌwɝk/
noun
the craft or skill of working with wood to create objects, structures, or decorative items using various tools and techniques
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panel
/ˈpænəɫ/
noun
a flat or slightly raised section of material, such as wood, metal, or plastic, that is used as a covering, divider, or decorative element in construction, furniture, or other applications
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insulation
/ˌɪnsəˈɫeɪʃən/
noun
the act of covering something with a substance that does not let heat, electricity, or sound to enter or escape through
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slender member
/slˈɛndɚ mˈɛmbɚ/
noun
a structural element, such as a beam or column, that has a relatively long length compared to its cross-sectional dimensions, typically characterized by its susceptibility to buckling under compressive loads
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blueprint
/ˈbɫuˌpɹɪnt/
noun
a photographic reproduction of a technical drawing, or of an early plan of a building or a machine
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elevation
/ˌɛɫəˈveɪʃən/
noun
one the sides of a building or the architectural drawing of it
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two by four
/tˈuː baɪ fˈoːɹ/
noun
a common size of lumber board used in construction and woodworking, which measures approximately 1.5 inches by 3.5 inches or 3.8 cm by 8.9 cm in cross-section
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ground plan
/ɡɹˈaʊnd plˈæn/
noun
a plan belonging to any of the floors of a building
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long-and-short work
/lˈɑːŋændʃˈɔːɹt wˈɜːk/
noun
a construction technique where alternating long and short stones or bricks are used to create a decorative pattern on the façade of a building
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cornerstone
/ˈkɔɹnɝˌstoʊn/
noun
the ceremonial or symbolic stone that is placed at the corner of a building's foundation, often inscribed with significant information or symbols, representing the starting point or establishment of the structure
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stucco
/ˈstəkoʊ/
noun
a type of plaster used for covering walls and ceilings, which leaves a rough surface and is also used to form decorative structures
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footing
/ˈfʊtɪŋ/
noun
the reinforced concrete or masonry structure that supports the foundation of a building, distributing its load to the underlying soil or bedrock
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glazing
/ˈɡɫeɪzɪŋ/
noun
the act or process of fitting or furnishing a structure, such as windows or doors, with glass or transparent materials to allow light transmission while providing insulation and protection
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grating
/ˈɡɹeɪtɪŋ/
noun
a grid-like structure made of bars or slats, used for flooring, ventilation, or safety purposes
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toothing
/tˈuːθɪŋ/
noun
a method of creating grooves or roughening surfaces to enhance the bond between new and existing masonry or concrete
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balk
/ˈbɑɫk/, /ˈbɔk/
noun
a long, thick, and horizontal timber or beam used as a support or a dividing element in construction, such as in the framing of floors, ceilings, or roofs
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straining piece
/stɹˈeɪnɪŋ pˈiːs/
noun
a structural element used to provide additional support and stability to a building or structure, typically installed diagonally or at an angle to resist lateral forces and improve overall strength
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fascia
/fˈeɪʃiə/
noun
a piece of board attached to the roof of a building to cover the ends of the rafters
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rafter
/ˈɹæftɝ/
noun
a sloping structural member, typically made of wood or metal, that supports the roof and transfers its weight to the walls or other supports of a building
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binder
/ˈbaɪndər/
noun
a horizontal beam or structural member that provides support and stability to a building or structure
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rammed earth
/ɹˈæmd ˈɜːθ/
noun
a construction technique where a mixture of soil, clay, sand, and gravel is compacted or "rammed" into formwork or molds, creating solid and durable walls or structures
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kiln
/ˈkɪɫn/
noun
a type of furnace or oven that is used for baking or drying pottery, ceramics, or bricks
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batten
/ˈbætən/
noun
a long and narrow piece of wood or metal used to hold together or fasten other materials of a building
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truss
/ˈtɹəs/
noun
a metal or wooden frame supporting a bridge, roof, etc.
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lath
/ˈɫæθ/
noun
a thin, narrow strip of wood, metal, or plaster used as a backing or support for the application of plaster or other materials, typically in the construction of walls, ceilings, or other surfaces
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wattle
/ˈwɑtəɫ/
noun
a construction method where woven branches or twigs are used to create a framework for walls or fences
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timber-frame
/tˈɪmbɚfɹˈeɪm/
noun
a building method that uses wooden timbers joined together to create the structural framework of a building
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wall panel
/wˈɔːl pˈænəl/
noun
a decorative or functional element installed on the surface of a wall, enhancing aesthetics and serving various purposes such as insulation or acoustics
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bracing system
/bɹˈeɪsɪŋ sˈɪstəm/
noun
a structural arrangement used to provide stability and resist lateral forces in buildings, bridges, or other structures
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wall plate
/wˈɔːl plˈeɪt/
noun
a horizontal wooden or metal plate that is fixed to a wall to support the ends of floor or ceiling joists
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welding
/ˈwɛɫdɪŋ/
noun
a process of joining two materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by melting them with high heat and allowing them to cool and fuse
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joist hanger
/dʒˈɔɪst hˈæŋɚ/
noun
a metal bracket used to support the ends of joists or beams in construction projects
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stonework
/stˈoʊnwɜːk/
noun
the construction or use of stones in various architectural or decorative applications, such as building walls, structures, pathways, or sculptures
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brickwork
/ˈbrɪkwɜːrk/
noun
the construction or arrangement of bricks in a structure, typically using mortar as a binding agent, to create walls, partitions, or other elements of a building
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