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dialect
/ˈdaɪəˌɫɛkt/
noun
the spoken form of a language specific to a certain region or people which is slightly different from the standard form in words and grammar
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accent
/ˈækˌsɛnt/, /əkˈsɛnt/
noun
a manner of speaking that indicates social class, nationality, or locality of the speaker
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vernacular
/vɝˈnækjəɫɝ/
noun
the everyday language spoken by a particular group of people in a specific region or community
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standard language
/stˈændɚd lˈæŋɡwɪdʒ/
noun
a regulated and accepted form of a language that is widely used in formal settings, education, government, and media
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register
/ˈɹɛdʒɪstɝ/
noun
(linguistics) a variety of language that is used in a particular social context, based on the communicative purpose and social status of the user
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jargon
/ˈdʒɑɹɡən/
noun
words, phrases, and expressions used by a specific group or profession, which are incomprehensible to others
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idolect
/ˈaɪdəlˌɛkt/
noun
the unique language variety or style of an individual speaker
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free variation
/fɹˈiː vˌɛɹɪˈeɪʃən/
noun
the phenomenon in which multiple forms or variants of a linguistic element, such as a phoneme, morpheme, or word, can be used interchangeably without affecting the meaning or grammaticality of a sentence
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regional dialect
/ɹˈiːdʒənəl dˈaɪəlɛkt/
noun
a variety of a language that is spoken in a specific geographical region
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social dialect
/sˈoʊʃəl dˈaɪəlɛkt/
noun
a variation of a language associated with a specific social group or class, characterized by distinct linguistic features influenced by social factors
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native language
/nˈeɪɾɪv lˈæŋɡwɪdʒ/
noun
the first language or mother tongue that a person acquires naturally from birth or early childhood and is typically the language they are most proficient in
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prestige
/pɹɛˈstiʒ/
noun
the social value and perceived status associated with a particular language, dialect, or speech variety
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received pronunciation
/ɹɪsˈiːvd pɹənˌʌnsɪˈeɪʃən/
noun
a prestigious and historically influential accent and pronunciation variant of Standard British English, commonly associated with educated speakers in the United Kingdom
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speech community
/spˈiːtʃ kəmjˈuːnɪɾi/
noun
a group of people who share a common language or variety of a language and interact with one another using that language or variety
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mutual intelligibility
/mjˈuːtʃuːəl ɪntˌɛlɪdʒəbˈɪlɪɾi/
noun
the ability of speakers of different but related languages or dialects to understand each other to a certain degree due to similarities in their linguistic structures and vocabulary
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isoglass
/ˈaɪsəɡlˌæs/
noun
a geographic boundary that marks the linguistic feature or variation in pronunciation, vocabulary, or grammar between different dialects or language varieties
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diglossia
/dɪɡlˈɔsiə/
noun
a sociolinguistic situation where two distinct varieties or registers of a language are used in different social contexts or for different purposes, typically one being a high-prestige, formal variety and the other a low-prestige, informal variety
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dialect levelling
/dˈaɪəlɛkt lˈɛvəlɪŋ/
noun
the process of reducing linguistic differences between dialects, resulting in a more standardized variety of a language
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dialect cluster
/dˈaɪəlɛkt klˈʌstɚ/
noun
a group of closely related dialects that share significant linguistic similarities, often found in a specific geographical or cultural region
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lingua franca
/lˈɪŋɡjuːə fɹˈænkə/
noun
a language or a simplified communication system that is used as a common means of communication between speakers of different native languages
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diasystem
/dˈaɪəsˌɪstəm/
noun
a set of interconnected or related language varieties, including dialects, registers, and other linguistic variants, that are used by a particular speech community or within a specific linguistic context
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dialect continuum
/dˈaɪəlɛkt kəntˈɪnjuːəm/
noun
a range of dialects that are mutually intelligible to some degree, where each adjacent dialect shares similarities and gradually transitions into the next one
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pidgin
/pˈɪdʒɪn/
noun
a simplified language made up of two or more languages used as a means of communication among people who do not share a common language but need to talk, for example for trading
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pidginization
/pˌɪdʒɪnaɪzˈeɪʃən/
noun
the process in which a simplified form of language, known as a pidgin, emerges as a means of communication between groups of people who do not share a common language
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zonal auxiliary language
/zˈoʊnəl ɔːksˈɪliəɹi lˈæŋɡwɪdʒ/
noun
a constructed language designed to serve as a communication tool within a specific geographic region or zone
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creole
/ˈkɹioʊɫ/
noun
a language that has been evolved from a mixture of a European and a local language, spoken as a mother tongue
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creolization
/kɹɪˌɑːlaɪzˈeɪʃən/
noun
the process through which a new language, known as a creole, emerges as a result of contact between different languages, typically in situations of colonization, slavery, or migration
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decreolization
/dᵻkɹɪˌɑːlaɪzˈeɪʃən/
noun
the process whereby a creole language undergoes changes that make it more similar to its lexifier language or other dominant languages in the surrounding linguistic environment
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post-creole continuum
/pˈoʊstkɹɪˈoʊl kəntˈɪnjuːəm/
noun
the spectrum of language varieties that emerge and evolve in a community following the formation of a creole language, ranging from more creole-like forms to more standard-like forms
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naturalistic planned language
/nˌætʃɚɹəlˈɪstɪk plˈænd lˈæŋɡwɪdʒ/
noun
a constructed language that aims to resemble and function like a natural language, typically developed with the goal of facilitating international communication and cultural exchange
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language secessionism
/lˈæŋɡwɪdʒ sɛsˈɛʃənˌɪzəm/
noun
the movement or desire for a particular linguistic group to secede or break away from a larger language or linguistic community to establish their own independent language or dialect
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code-switching
/kˈoʊdswˈɪtʃɪŋ/
noun
the phenomenon of switching between two or more languages or language varieties within a conversation or discourse, often influenced by social, cultural, or linguistic factors
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variety
/vɝˈaɪəti/
noun
a distinct form or type of a language, such as a regional variety, social variety, or stylistic variety, which may differ in terms of pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar, and usage
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lexifier
/lˈɛksɪfˌaɪɚ/
noun
the main language that makes it difficult to learn or understand a simplified language that developed from a mix of different languages
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style shifting
/stˈaɪl ʃˈɪftɪŋ/
noun
the phenomenon of changing one's language or speech style based on different social contexts, audiences, or situations, often involving the use of different registers, dialects, or levels of formality
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covert prestige
/koʊvˈɜːt pɹɛstˈiːʒ/
noun
the social value or status attached to non-standard or stigmatized forms of language, often within specific subcultures or communities, despite their lack of recognition or validation in broader society
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indigenous language
/ɪndˈɪdʒənəs lˈæŋɡwɪdʒ/
noun
a language that is native to a particular region or territory and has been traditionally spoken by the indigenous or native population of that area
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slang
/ˈsɫæŋ/
noun
words or expressions that are very informal and more common in spoken form, used especially by a particular group of people, such as criminals, children, etc.
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taboo language
/tæbˈuː lˈæŋɡwɪdʒ/
noun
words, expressions, or topics that are considered socially or culturally inappropriate or offensive and are typically avoided or restricted in polite conversation
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British English
/bɹˈɪɾɪʃ ˈɪŋɡlɪʃ/
noun
the English language as used in the United Kingdom
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American English
/ɐmˈɛɹɪkən ˈɪŋɡlɪʃ/
noun
the variety of English language used primarily in the United States, characterized by its distinct pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammar conventions
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ebonics
/iˈbɔnɪks/
noun
a variety of English spoken predominantly by African Americans in the United States
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bidialectal
/baɪdˈɪeɪlktəl/
noun
an individual who is proficient in and able to switch between two distinct dialects or varieties of a language, typically based on regional or social factors
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hypercorrection
/hˌaɪpɚkɚɹˈɛkʃən/
noun
a linguistic phenomenon where speakers or writers overcompensate for a perceived error or nonstandard usage by using a form that is actually incorrect or nonstandard
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T-V distinction
/tˈiː vˈiː dɪstˈɪŋkʃən/
noun
a linguistic feature that distinguishes between formal and informal forms of address in language, often indicating social status or hierarchy
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anglicism
/ˈæŋɡlɪsˌɪzəm/
noun
a word, phrase, or grammatical construction that is borrowed from the English language into another language
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britishism
/bɹˈɪɾɪʃˌɪzəm/
noun
a word, phrase, pronunciation, or cultural trait that is specific to or associated with British English or British culture
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uptalk
/ˈʌptɔːk/
noun
speech in which every declarative clause, sentence, etc. ends with a rising intonation, as if a question
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interlanguage
/ˌɪntɚlˈæŋɡwɪdʒ/
noun
the linguistic system that emerges during second language acquisition, characterized by a combination of the learner's native language and the target language, incorporating both correct and incorrect features as the learner progresses towards proficiency
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language planning
/lˈæŋɡwɪdʒ plˈænɪŋ/
noun
the intentional actions taken to shape or control how a language is used in a community or society
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language assessment
/lˈæŋɡwɪdʒ ɐsˈɛsmənt/
noun
the process of evaluating an individual's language proficiency or abilities through various tests, examinations, or evaluations
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code word
/kˈoʊd wˈɜːd/
noun
a word or phrase with a predetermined meaning that is used instead of the usual name or word for something
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linguistic purism
/lɪŋɡwˈɪstɪk pjˈʊɹɪzəm/
noun
the advocacy or belief in preserving or purifying a language by purging it of foreign or non-standard elements, often aiming for linguistic preservation and cultural identity
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stratum
/ˈstɹætəm/
noun
a distinct layer or level within a language system, such as different dialects, sociolects, or registers, that are associated with specific social groups, regions, or levels of formality
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substratum
/sʌbstɹˈɑːɾəm/
noun
the linguistic influence of a less prestigious language on a dominant language in contact, resulting in the adoption or transfer of phonological, morphological, syntactic, or lexical features
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