English vocabulary Internal Organs and Functions 1

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Achilles tendon

noun
a tendon in the leg that attaches the muscles of the calf to the bone of the heel

adenoid

noun
(usually plural) each of the pair of large lymphoid tissues high up in the throat and behind the nose that have to be removed if swollen

adrenaline

noun
a hormone produced in the body when we are angry, afraid or excited that makes the heart beat and the body react faster

anatomy

noun
the human body

antibody

noun
a blood protein produced in an immune response to any disease or infection in the body

anus

noun
the ending hole of the intestines from which chemical wastes of the body are taken out

aorta

noun
the main artery that carries highly oxygenated blood from the heart, which has circulated through the lungs, to the rest of the body

appendix

noun
a sack of tissue that is attached to the large intestine and is surgically removed if infected

artery

noun
any of the blood vessels that carry blood from the heart to other organs

auricle

noun
(anatomy) either of the two cavities of the upper part of the heart that pass blood to the ventricles

bile

noun
a greenish-yellow alkaline fluid that is produced by the liver in order to help the body absorb fats

bile duct

noun
the tube that carries bile from the liver or the gall bladder to the first segment of the small intestine, also known as duodenum

bladder

noun
a bag-shaped organ inside the body of a person or an animal where urine is collected before being passed

blood

noun
the red liquid that the heart pumps through the body, carrying oxygen to and carbon dioxide from the tissues

bloodstream

noun
the blood that circulates through the body

blood vessel

noun
a tube in the body in which the blood circulates

bone

noun
any of the hard pieces making up the skeleton in humans and some animals

bone marrow

noun
the soft substance that fills the cavities of bones, which is either yellowish and consists of fat cells or reddish and makes blood cells

bowel

noun
(usually plural) the tube that extends from the stomach to the anus, through which food is passed and waste is collected at its end

brain

noun
the organ inside the head that controls how we think, feel and move

breath

noun
the air taken into or sent out from the lungs

breathing

noun
the action of taking air into the lungs and sending it out again

canal

noun
a tubular passage in the body through which air, liquid or food can pass

capillary

noun
(anatomy) any of the small and thin-walled branching blood vessels that connect the arterioles and venules

cartilage

noun
an elastic tissue that supports or connects joints in an infant and turns into skeleton during growth

cell

noun
(biology) the smallest unit of a living organism that can exist on its own, with at least one nucleus

cervix

noun
(technical) the part in a human or animal body that connects the head to the torso

circulation

noun
the flow and movement of the blood all over the body

cochlea

noun
(anatomy) a spiral cavity in the inner ear that contains sensory organs which send nerve signals to the brain in response to vibrations

colon

noun
the part at the end of the bowel between the cecum and rectum

cortex

noun
the outer layer of the anterior part of the brain, called cerebrum, containing gray matter

disc

noun
a rounded cartilage between the spinal bones

duct

noun
a tubular passage in the body through which liquid, such as tears or bile, can pass

ear canal

noun
the passage through which sound is carried from the outer ear to the tympanic membrane

eardrum

noun
the part in the middle ear that vibrates by sound waves and enables one to hear sounds, also known as tympanic membrane

fiber

noun
any strand of nerve or muscle tissue

gall bladder

noun
a muscular organ next to the liver where bile is stored

ganglion

noun
(anatomy) a mass of neurons that form a nerve center in the body outside the brain or spinal cord

gland

noun
a specialized organ that secretes a particular chemical substance or produces a hormone that the body needs

gullet

noun
the duct through which food is passed from the throat to the stomach

gut

noun
the lower part of the digestive tract between the stomach and the rectum

hamstring

noun
(anatomy) one of the five tendons at the back of someone's knee

heart

noun
the organ in the chest that pumps blood through the body

hemisphere

noun
either the left or right side of the brain, or the cerebrum

hormone

noun
a chemical substance produced in the body of an animal or plant that influences growth, sex and other bodily functions

hypothalamus

noun
(anatomy) a region in the central lower part of the brain that is responsible for autonomic nervous system and the release of hormones

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