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intervertebral disc

/ˌɪntɚvˈɜːɾɪbɹəl dˈɪsk/
noun
a rounded cartilage that functions as a cushion between the spinal bones
Examples:

Less than needed but actually just enough energy if he manages to strike through an intervertebral disc and miss bone.

intestine

/ˌɪnˈtɛstən/
noun
a long, continuous tube in the body through which the food coming from the stomach moves and is passed
Examples:

Over time, it balls up in the intestine of some sperm whales and eventually, out it goes.

Billions are on your hands, in your intestines and your eyelids right now.

joint

/ˈdʒɔɪnt/
noun
the foldable part of the body where two bones are joined
Examples:

Sensors in the joints, tendons, and bones tell the brain where the body is positioned in space.

Harryhausen equipped one-foot-tall model skeletons with joints that allowed the skeletons to move naturally.

jugular

/ˈdʒuɡjəɫɝ/
noun
any of the three large veins in the neck that carry blood from the head and face
Examples:

Katz proposed going for the jugular by attacking Nintendo's reputation with marketing.

It's like the jugular might start boofing out on you.

I see kind of a big gash across where the jugular would be.

kidney

/ˈkɪdni/
noun
each of the two bean-shaped organs in the lower back of the body that separate wastes from the blood and make urine
Examples:

Mrs. Potts told her that she only wanted a sheep's kidney.

She shouted, 'Here's your kidney!' and ran and gave her the parcel.

larynx

/ˈɫɛɹɪŋks/
noun
the hollow organ in the throat that contains the vocal chords and produces sound
Examples:

You can split the vocal tract above the larynx, or voice box, into two basic parts.

He accurately observed how the larynx works and demonstrated the the lungs fill up with air.

The sound of your voice starts in your voice box, or your larynx.

ligament

/ˈɫɪɡəmənt/
noun
(anatomy) a strong band of tissue which connects two bones or cartilages or keeps organs in place
Examples:

Instead, it’s held in place by muscles and ligaments.

It stood on tip-toe, with all of its weight on three toes supported by springy ligaments.

Joints, muscles and ligaments that are attached to the bones hold it all together.

limbic system

/lˈɪmbɪk sˈɪstəm/
noun
a complex subcortical nervous system of the brain that is associated with emotions and drives
Examples:

Here we also find part of the limbic system, which is a center for strong emotions, like fear.

And on the other side is the limbic system.

Wrapped around the reptile brain was the paleomammalian complex or limbic system, which was largely in charge of emotions.

liver

/ˈɫɪvɝ/
noun
a large organ in the body that produces bile and cleans the blood
Examples:

Hospitals use it in transfusions to treat burns, liver failure, and more recently, COVID-19.

It's as expensive as it sounds, foie gras: the fattened liver of a duck or goose.

lobe

/ˈɫoʊb/
noun
(anatomy) a rounded part of an organ in the body, such as lungs or brain
Examples:

Their frontal lobes are virtually inactive.

Science has proven that the frontal lobe of the brain controls many aspects of thought and concentration.

The authors believe these lobes represent what the earliest form of insect wings were like.

lung

/ˈɫəŋ/
noun
each of the two organs in the chest that help us breathe
Examples:

Doctors could not spray a person's lungs with acid.

Like it's just the perfect time to like just scream, your lungs out.

marrow

/ˈmɛɹoʊ/
noun
the soft substance that fills the cavities of bones, which is either yellowish and consists of fat cells or reddish and makes blood cells
Examples:

So our ancestors were clearly eating meat and marrow pretty often by then.

And all that meat and marrow is really high in calories, compared to things like fruits and tubers.

The bones of big herbivores contain a lot of fat, juicy marrow.

membrane

/ˈmɛmˌbɹeɪn/
noun
a thin sheet of tissue that separates, parts or covers the inner parts of the body
Examples:

Cell membranes allow for diffusion of certain molecules.

Corona connects to a specific receptor on its victim's membranes to inject its genetic material.

They swallow the intruder whole and trap it inside a membrane.

nerve

/ˈnɝv/
noun
a group of fibers which carry massages from the brain to other organs of the body and cause them function in a certain way
Examples:

The objective was to isolate the healthy nerves that once controlled movement in Jesse's left arm.

These nerves were reattached to muscles in Jesse's chest.

Eventually the re-routed nerves would grow into the chest muscles.

nervous system

/nˈɜːvəs sˈɪstəm/
noun
the network of neurons and fibers that interpret stimuli and transmit impulses from the body to the brain
Examples:

SERIOUS REACTIONS Fire ant venom may be toxic to the nervous system.

They attack insects by harming their nervous systems.

But any animal with a developed central nervous system is a person.

neuron

/ˈnʊɹɑn/
noun
a cell that is responsible for transmitting nerve impulses between the brain and the rest of the body
Examples:

But how is it that the neurons in the brain translate those signals into something we recognize as music?

These neurons have receptors that can detect a particular molecule.

Apparently, the human nose has about one thousand different types of olfactory neurons.

oesophagus

/ɪsˈɑːfəɡəs/
noun
the duct through which food is passed from the throat to the stomach
Examples:

Each dog was subjected to an incision of the oesophagus: this opened a fistula, from which a tube led to the collection vessel.

organ

/ˈɔɹɡən/
noun
any vital part of the body which has a particular function
Examples:

In 1954, doctors successfully transplanted the first human organ: a kidney taken from a patient's identical twin.

Factor in the 15,000 other organs transplanted each year, and you've got yourself a booming business.

To understand why, just consider what it takes to transplant an organ.

orifice

/ˈɔɹəfəs/
noun
a hole or external opening in the body, such as an ear canal or the anus
Examples:

The name monotreme means one hole referring to the single orifice they use for reproduction, excretion, and egg-laying.

And then you have to make sure the flow, into the orifice there, is perfectly perfectly level.

Minutes after his demise, his body actually sort-of exploded, fluid pouring out of several orifices.

ovary

/ˈoʊˌvɝi/
noun
one of the two organs in women or other female animals that produces eggs for reproduction
Examples:

The tubes are about 10 centimeters long, and interestingly, they aren’t actually connected to the ovaries.

So the raw materials for this process are in your ovaries or your testes, depending on...

In women, estrogen secreted from the ovaries signals the start of adulthood.

oviduct

/ˈoʊvɪdˌʌkt/
noun
(anatomy) each of the pair of tubes in the female body through which eggs pass to the ovary
Examples:

In the process, his semen shoots through her oviduct where she stores it for later use.

But it's probably inserted into the oviduct.

These ducts stay intact and become the uterus cervix, upper vagina, and the oviduct with the help of Estrogen, and chemicals secreted by the early kidney.

pancreas

/ˈpænkɹiəs/
noun
a large gland in the body that controls the blood sugar by producing insulin and glucagon and helps the body digest food
Examples:

When you have type one, the pancreas makes no insulin at all.

The pancreas was derived from the injected rat stem cells, and even worked to produce insulin.

Your pancreas doesn’t produce any insulin.

pharynx

/ˈfɛɹɪŋks/
noun
(anatomy) the passage in the throat that connects the mouth to the gullet
Examples:

Like the glossopharyngeal nerve, which leads to your tongue and your pharynx.

Nasal path's gonna lubricate; through the pharynx then navigate.

The mouth makes up the horizontal part and the pharynx makes up the vertical part - the bit between the mouth and the voice box.

phlegm

/ˈfɫɛm/
noun
the thick mucus that is formed in the nasal and throat cavities, usually secreted in excessive amounts as a result of common cold
Examples:

In response, Diogenes projected a full mouthful of phlegm into the man’s face.

Each of these corresponds to one of the four elements of Empedocles: blood, made of air, phlegm, made of water, yellow bile, made of fire, and black bile, made of earth.

Ancient Greek physician Hippocrates believed personality manifested itself in four different humors, and, basically, you are who you are because of your balance of phlegm, blood, and yellow and black bile.

plasma

/ˈpɫæzmə/
noun
(biology) the colorless liquid part of the blood in which the blood cells are suspended
Examples:

Why are Americans supplying two-thirds of the world's blood plasma?

In 2019 alone, plasma companies paid about $2.7 billion for Americans' donations.

So why is plasma so expensive?

pulse

/ˈpəɫs/
noun
the rhythmic beating of the blood vessels created when the heart pumps, especially felt on the wrist or at the sides of the neck
Examples:

GPR sends thousands of radar pulses per second into the ground.

This action creates waves or pulses that travel through the air.

Pitch relates to how close together these waves or pulses are.

rectum

/ˈɹɛktəm/
noun
the final part of the large intestine where waste is collected before being passed through the anus
Examples:

The puborectalis forms a sling-like formation around the rectum called the anorectal angle.

Look at the angle of her rectum when she stands up.

There's, like, pilonidal cysts, which occur, like, right above the rectum there.

respiration

/ˌɹɛspɝˈeɪʃən/
noun
(anatomy) a single complete breath that consists of an inhalation and exhalation
Examples:

Respiration becomes hard or even fails, and patients need ventilators to survive.

It’s an adaptation that helps us, and other endotherms, retain more heat and water during respiration.

So, the principles that make respiration possible are relatively simple -- diffusion and bulk flow.

sinus

/ˈsaɪnəs/
noun
any hollow tract in the bones of the head or the skull that is connected to the nasal cavities and contains air
Examples:

But we’ll take just one common case a sinus infectionas an example.

The sinuses are a system of cavities that spread behind our foreheads, noses, and upper cheeks.

I know it's hard to remember, but your face is filled with water up to your sinuses.

solar plexus

/sˈoʊlɚ plˈɛksəs/
noun
(anatomy) a network of nerves in the abdomen and in front of the aorta that contains several ganglia
Examples:

The problem was that almost everyone else saw the punch as a legitimate hit to the solar plexus.

He relied instead on his trademark solar plexus punch.

This wasn’t just a straight-ahead punch to the solar plexus.

spinal cord

/spˈaɪnəl kˈoːɹd/
noun
the inner part of the spine containing a mass of nerves that connects the brain to almost all the body parts
Examples:

Your brain sends action potentials down your spinal cord and preganglionic neuronal axons.

Both your spinal cord and brain are made of fragile, jelly-like nervous tissue that is extremely susceptible to injury.

Should they pull out their opponents heart or simply rip his head off just to see a spinal cord dangle at a pool of blood?

spleen

/ˈspɫin/
noun
(anatomy) a small red organ at the left side of the body that is concerned with the quality of the blood cells and production of lymphocytes
Examples:

A blockage in the spleen, part of the immune system, puts patients at risk for dangerous infections.

Our spleens are what filter and store oxygen-rich red blood cells.

We've seen the eye, my colleagues have done the brain, the spleen.

stem cell

/stˈɛm sˈɛl/
noun
(biology) a basic type of cell, of a multicellular organism, which develops into differentiated cells
Examples:

In mice, scientists observed that as the stem cells in their brains disappeared, they started to develop diseases

The fresh stem cells reinvigorated older brain cells by secreting micro RNAs that regulated their metabolism.

Another study took stem cells from mice embryos and injected them directly into the hearts of older mice.

tissue

/ˈtɪsˌju/, /ˈtɪʃu/
noun
a group of cells in the body of living things
Examples:

The venom is also necroticit kills the tissue that it comes in contact with.

Terrible sores can result if an infection takes hold near the necrotic tissue.

One serious effect of long exposure to strong spider venoms is necrosis, or "tissue death.".

tonsil

/ˌtɑnsəɫ/
noun
(anatomy) each of the pair of lymphoid tissues in the pharynx at the side of the tongue root
Examples:

Your tonsils are part of your lymphatic system.

The solid lumps that form are called tonsil stones, or tonsilloliths.

Tonsil stones can vary in size from a couple millimeters to a couple centimeters.

trachea

/ˈtɹeɪkiə/
noun
(anatomy) the membranous tube in the body that carries air from the throat to the bronchi
Examples:

She also had sediment in her trunk, trachea, and lungs.

From there, the trachea splits in two, forming the right and left main bronchi.

There have even been some successful trachea transplants that helped patients, although others have had more serious complications.

tract

/ˈtɹækt/
noun
(anatomy) a system of interconnected organs or tissues that perform a particular task in the body
Examples:

It's likened to like a sunburn on the lung because it irritates the respiratory tract.

You can split the vocal tract above the larynx, or voice box, into two basic parts.

Some of our more recent relatives also seem to’ve had vocal tract proportions similar to that individual.

urethra

/ˌjɝˈiθɹə/
noun
(anatomy) the duct in the male body through which urine or semen is passed
Examples:

By transporting urine from high to low, the urethra has a similar effect.

The urethra’s diameter also affects flow rate.

For example, a female elephant has a meter-long urethra with a thirty-five millimeter diameter.

uterus

/ˈjutɝəs/
noun
(anatomy) the organ with a hollow space in the female body where the fetus is conceived and grown before being born
Examples:

The menstrual cycle is what happens in the uterus to prepare for a fertilized egg.

As a pregnancy progresses, the uterus expands upward and outward with the growing fetus.

The expanding uterus may press on veinscausing fluid buildup in the legs and feet.

uvula

/jˈuːvjʊlə/
noun
(anatomy) the soft fleshy part at the back of the soft palate that hangs just above the pharynx
Examples:

These glands are connected to muscle fibers that run through the uvula.

If the uvula’s immune cells can’t fight off the infection, it can get painfully swollen.

The repetitive stress of each snore might be what makes the uvula so inflamed.

vagina

/vəˈdʒaɪnə/
noun
(anatomy) the muscular passage in the female body between the outer sex organs and the uterus
Examples:

Well, didn't realise I would be talking about cat vaginas in a video

Never thought I would talk about cat vaginas but here we are.

I just didn't like the idea of shoving things up my vagina.

vein

/ˈveɪn/
noun
a blood vessel or tube that carries blood toward the heart
Examples:

I have driving in my veins.

You can't get it much better than that, and saltwater is in my veins.

ventricle

/ˈvɛnˌtɹɪkəɫ/
noun
(anatomy) a chamber in the lower part of the heart that carries the blood from the auricles to the arteries
Examples:

One, the ventricles are so large that the signal has to be distributed evenly to ensure a coordinated contraction.

The ventricles, meanwhile, are the discharging chambers that push the blood back out of the heart.

The ventricles are beastly by comparison.

windpipe

/wˈɪndpaɪp/
noun
the passage with ringed cartilages in the respiratory system that carries air from the throat to the lungs
Examples:

When we breathe in air, oxygen goes down our windpipe and fills the lungs.

So when you tilt your head back, you can block or flood your windpipe with blood.

So that's your windpipe versus your swallowing tube.

womb

/ˈwum/
noun
the part of a woman or female mammal's body where the baby grows before birth
Examples:

Nobody came out of the womb fluent in sign language.

That y'all just come out of the womb fluent in sign language.

A baby in the womb of its mother behaves as if it were a part of her.

Great!

You've reviewed all the words in this lesson!