generative grammar
/dʒˈɛnɚɹətˌɪv ɡɹˈæmɚ/
(linguistics) a linguistic theory that believes in an innate set of rules which can be used to produce an infinite number of possible sentences in a language
realizational morphology
/ɹˌiːəlaɪzˈeɪʃənəl mɔːɹfˈɑːlədʒi/
the branch of linguistics that studies how words are created and how their structure reflects their meaning by focusing on morphemes
distributed morphology
/dˈɪstɹɪbjˌuːɾᵻd mɔːɹfˈɑːlədʒi/
a theoretical framework within linguistics that focuses on the way morphological processes and structures are distributed across different levels of linguistic representation
transformational grammar
/tɹænsfoːɹmˈeɪʃənəl ɡɹˈæmɚ/
a linguistic theory that aims to explain the rules behind the transformation of sentences from one form to another, such as from active to passive voice
meaning-text theory
/mˈiːnɪŋtˈɛkst θˈiəɹi/
a linguistic framework that seeks to describe and explain the relationship between meaning and syntax in language
Word Grammar
/wˈɜːd ɡɹˈæmɚ/
a linguistic framework that emphasizes the central role of words in language structure and meaning
X-bar theory
/ˈɛksbˈɑːɹ θˈiəɹi/
a linguistic framework that provides a model for analyzing and representing the hierarchical structure of phrases in syntax
operator grammar
/ˈɑːpɚɹˌeɪɾɚ ɡɹˈæmɚ/
a linguistic framework that focuses on the relationship between operators and their scope in the analysis of sentence structure and meaning
arc pair grammar
/ˈɑːɹk pˈɛɹ ɡɹˈæmɚ/
a linguistic framework that aims to provide a formal and computationally tractable account of sentence structure and parsing
bow-wow theory
/bˈoʊwˈaʊ θˈiəɹi/
a speculative hypothesis about the origin of language, suggesting that language developed as a result of humans imitating the sounds of natural phenomena and the vocalizations of animals
functional linguistics
/fˈʌŋkʃənəl lɪŋɡwˈɪstɪks/
a linguistic framework that analyzes language based on the functions it serves in communication, focusing on the relationship between language and its social, cultural, and cognitive context to understand how language is used to express meaning and achieve communicative goals
optimality theory
/ˌɑːptɪmˈælɪɾi θˈiəɹi/
a linguistic framework that posits that language structures and patterns are governed by a set of universal constraints, which compete with each other to determine the optimal output
construction grammar
/kənstɹˈʌkʃən ɡɹˈæmɚ/
a linguistic framework that focuses on the role of grammatical constructions, or form-meaning pairings, in language structure and usage
a theoretical approach in linguistics that emphasizes the analysis of language structure as a system of interrelated elements, focusing on the underlying rules and patterns that govern language organization rather than individual linguistic units
relevance theory
/ɹˈɛlᵻvəns θˈiəɹi/
a framework within pragmatics that focuses on the process of communication and the role of relevance in comprehension
autosegmental phonology
/ˌɔːɾoʊsɛɡmˈɛntəl fənˈɑːlədʒi/
a linguistic framework that analyzes the phonological structure of languages by representing different phonological features and processes as separate and independent tiers, or autosegments, which interact with one another
dynamic syntax
/daɪnˈæmɪk sˈɪntæks/
a linguistic framework that models language understanding as a dynamic and incremental process, where the interpretation of an utterance is built incrementally based on the combination of words and their interaction with the context
a theoretical perspective that posits that knowledge and understanding are actively constructed by individuals through their interactions with the world
frame semantics
/fɹˈeɪm səmˈæntɪks/
a linguistic framework that analyzes meaning in terms of conceptual frames or mental structures, which organize our knowledge and understanding of the world
dependency grammar
/dɪpˈɛndənsi ɡɹˈæmɚ/
a linguistic framework that analyzes sentence structure by representing the relationships and dependencies between words using directed links, focusing on the hierarchical organization of these dependencies and the role of syntactic heads
innateness hypothesis
/ɪnnˈeɪtnəs haɪpˈɑːθəsˌɪs/
a prominent theory in the field of language acquisition, which argues that humans possess a genetically predetermined capacity for acquiring and developing language
constituent analysis
/kənstˈɪtʃuːənt ɐnˈæləsˌɪs/
a linguistic method used to identify and analyze the grammatical constituents or structural units within a sentence, revealing the hierarchical relationships between words and phrases to understand the underlying syntactic structure
linguistic prescription
/lɪŋɡwˈɪstɪk pɹɪskɹˈɪpʃən/
the practice of prescribing or dictating specific rules, norms, and standards for language usage, often through formal grammars and style guides, with the aim of maintaining or promoting a particular variant or prestige form of a language
evolutionary linguistics
/ˌɛvəlˈuːʃənˌɛɹi lɪŋɡwˈɪstɪks/
an interdisciplinary approach that explores the evolutionary origins, development, and adaptive functions of language within human populations, integrating principles from linguistics, biology, anthropology, and cognitive science
Skopos theory
/skˈoʊpoʊz θˈiəɹi/
an approach in translation studies that emphasizes the importance of the intended purpose or function (skopos) of a translation in guiding translation decisions, focusing on the target context and communicative goals
a quantitative approach in linguistics that uses statistical methods and computational tools to analyze and measure linguistic variation and similarities across dialects or language varieties
conceptual semantics
/kənsˈɛptʃuːəl səmˈæntɪks/
an approach in linguistics that focuses on the study of meaning by examining the cognitive concepts and categories underlying language, emphasizing the role of mental representations and cognitive processes in shaping linguistic meaning and understanding
conversation analysis
/kɑːnvɚsˈeɪʃən ɐnˈæləsˌɪs/
a sociolinguistic research approach that analyzes naturally occurring conversations to uncover the underlying organizational patterns and interactive processes through which meaning is collaboratively constructed
prototype theory
/pɹˈoʊɾoʊtˌaɪp θˈiəɹi/
a cognitive framework that suggests that our understanding of categories is based on prototypes or typical examples that embody the core features of a category, and that category membership is determined by the degree of resemblance to these prototypes
theta theory
/θˈiːɾə θˈiəɹi/
a linguistic framework that seeks to explain the assignment of thematic roles to arguments in a sentence based on their relation to the verb and the syntactic structure of the sentence
politeness theory
/pəlˈaɪtnəs θˈiəɹi/
a framework in pragmatics that analyzes how individuals employ language strategies to manage social interactions and maintain positive face, while minimizing potential threats to face
wave model
/wˈeɪv mˈɑːdəl/
a sociolinguistic model that describes language changes and shifts over time as occurring in waves or successive stages, typically associated with the movement and interaction of different speech communities
Sapir–Whorf hypothesis
/sˈæpɪɹ wˈoːɹf haɪpˈɑːθəsˌɪs/
the linguistic and anthropological proposition that suggests the structure of language shapes and influences our perception, thought processes, and cultural worldview
contrastive analysis
/kˈɑːntɹɐstˌɪv ɐnˈæləsˌɪs/
a linguistic approach that compares and contrasts two or more languages or language varieties to identify similarities and differences in their structures, vocabulary, pronunciation, and other linguistic aspects
lexical functional grammar
/lˈɛksɪkəl fˈʌŋkʃənəl ɡɹˈæmɚ/
a linguistic framework that focuses on the interplay between lexical and syntactic structures in natural language
combinatory categorial grammar
/kˈɑːmbɪnətˌoːɹi kætˈɪɡɚɹɪəl ɡɹˈæmɚ/
a linguistic framework within formal syntax that combines categorial grammar with combinatory logic to model the syntactic structure and compositionality of natural language sentences
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