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altitude
/ˈæɫtəˌtud/
noun
the distance between an object or point and sea level
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latitude
/ˈɫætəˌtud/
noun
the distance of a point north or south of the equator that is measured in degrees
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longitude
/ˈɫɑndʒəˌtud/
noun
the distance of a point east or west of the meridian at Greenwich that is measured in degrees
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bay
/ˈbeɪ/
noun
an area of land that is curved and partly encloses a part of the sea
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branch
/ˈbɹæntʃ/
noun
a smaller part of a river that is separated from the main and larger part
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clearing
/ˈkɫɪɹɪŋ/
noun
a treeless area in a forest
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cove
/ˈkoʊv/
noun
a small curved area of land that partly encloses a specific part of the sea
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crater
/ˈkɹeɪtɝ/
noun
the round top of a volcano
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deposit
/dəˈpɑzɪt/, /dɪˈpɑzət/
noun
a layer of matter that has been accumulated, particularly by a body of water
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dock
/ˈdɑk/
noun
a structure built out into the water so that people can get on and off boats or ships
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estuary
/ˈɛstʃuˌɛɹi/
noun
the part of a river that is wide and where it meets the sea
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flow
/ˈfɫoʊ/
noun
the state of moving constantly and steadily
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gulf
/ˈɡəɫf/
noun
an area of sea that is partly surrounded by land, with a narrow opening
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horizon
/hɝˈaɪzən/
noun
the line where the sky and earth seem to come in contact with each other
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iceberg
/ˈaɪsbɝɡ/
noun
a very large floating piece of ice
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peak
/ˈpik/
noun
the pointed top of a mountain; a mountain that has a pointed top
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peninsula
/pəˈnɪnsəɫə/
noun
a large body of land that is partially surrounded by water but is attached to a larger area of land
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plain
/ˈpɫeɪn/
noun
a vast area of flat land
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plateau
/pɫæˈtoʊ/
noun
an area of land that is flat and higher than the land surrounding it
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pole
/ˈpoʊɫ/
noun
the most northern or most southern points of the earth that are joined by its axis of rotation
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pond
/ˈpɑnd/
noun
an area containing still water that is comparatively smaller than a lake, particularly one that is made artificially
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range
/ˈɹeɪndʒ/
noun
a line of mountains or hills
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ravine
/ɹəˈvin/
noun
a deep narrow valley with steep sides, usually worn by a stream
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reservoir
/ˈɹɛzəvˌwɑɹ/, /ˈɹɛzɝvˌwɑɹ/
noun
a lake, either natural or artificial, from which water is supplied to houses
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summit
/ˈsəmət/, /ˈsəmɪt/
noun
the top of a mountain
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swamp
/ˈswɑmp/, /ˈswɔmp/
noun
an area of land that is covered with water or is always very wet
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tundra
/ˈtəndɹə/
noun
the expansive flat Arctic regions, of North America, Asia, and Europe, in which no trees grow and the soil is always frozen
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to erode
/ˈiɹoʊd/, /ɪˈɹoʊd/
verb
(of natural forces such as wind, water, or other environmental factors) to gradually wear away or diminish the surface of a material
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arid
/ˈæɹəd/, /ˈɛɹəd/
adjective
(of land or a climate) very dry because of not having enough or any rain
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barren
/ˈbærən/, /ˈberən/
adjective
(of land or soil) not capable of producing any plants
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coastal
/ˈkoʊstəɫ/
adjective
situated on or near a coast
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fertile
/ˈfɝtəɫ/, /fɝˈtaɪɫ/
adjective
(of land or soil) able to produce crops or plants well
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inland
/ˈɪnˌɫænd/
adjective
located away from the coast
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offshore
/ˈɔfˈʃɔɹ/
adjective
located in the sea, not far from the coast
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marine
/mɝˈin/
adjective
related to the sea and the different life forms that exist there
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neighboring
/ˈneɪbɝɪŋ/
adjective
(of a place) close to another
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upstream
/ˈəpˈstɹim/
adverb
against the current of a river or stream
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