# Measurements

The act of telling the size, length, weight, etc, of something, is called measurement which is all about numbers and fractions.

## What Do We Mean by Measurements?

Anytime we use a process to find out the *size, length, or amount* of something, we’re **measuring**. We measure things including weight, time, length, and many other measurable things.

## System of Measurement

A system of measurement is a collection of units of measurement and rules relating them to each other.

### System of Measurement: Types

We have __two__ types of systems of measurement:

- The Metric System
- The Imperial System

### The Metric System

*The* *Metric* *System*, adopted in France in 1795, is a system of measurement that is now used officially in almost all countries. After the French Revolution, the government decided to have one standard system of measurement to unify the whole country. Since then, 'The Metric System', also called *SI*, has been the universal measurement system for nearly all countries except the USA.

### The Imperial System

*The* *Imperial* *System* of *Units* (also called **imperial system** or **imperial units** or **British Imperial**) was a system of measurement that was mainly used by countries like the UK, Canada, New Zealand, Australia, USA, etc. However, the only country that currently uses this system for measurement is the USA. It is based on **feet, inches, pounds, and Fahrenheit**.

## Volume

All three-dimensional objects occupy a space, we measure this space using units of 'volume'. **Volume** is the space occupied by an object in three-dimensional space. It is used to measure solids and liquids.

abbreviation | equivalents of the same system(imperial) | metric equivalent | |
---|---|---|---|

cubic yard | cu yd | 27 cubic feet, or 46,656 cubic inches | 0.765 cubic metre |

cubic foot | cu ft | 1,728 cubic inches, or 0.0370 cubic yard | 0.028 cubic metre |

cubic inch | cu in | 0.00058 cubic foot, or 0.000021 cubic yard | 16.387 cubic centimetres |

acre-foot | ac ft | 43,560 cubic feet, or 1,613 cubic yards | 1,233 cubic metres |

board foot | bd ft | 144 cubic inches, or 1/12 cubic foot | 2.36 litres |

cord | cd | 128 cubic feet | 3.62 cubic metres |

## Weight

**Weight** measures the heaviness of objects, which can be food, a ball, human weight, etc. Let's see which units are used to measure weight in the imperial (US) and metric systems.

abbreviation | equivalents of the same system(imperial) | metric equivalent | |
---|---|---|---|

ton | 20 hundredweight, or 2,240 pounds | 1.016 metric tons | |

hundredweight | cwt | 100 pounds, or 0.05 ton | 45.359 kilograms |

pound | lb | 16 ounces, or 7,000 grains | 0.454 kilogram |

ounce | oz | 16 drams, 437.5 grains, or 0.0625 pound | 28.350 grams |

dram | dr | 27.344 grains, or 0.0625 ounce | 1.772 grams |

grain | gr | 0.037 dram, or 0.002286 ounce | 0.0648 gram |

stone | st | 0.14 hundredweight, or 14 pounds | 6.35 kilograms |

## Area

The area of an object can be measured from several aspects. **Length** typically refers to the longest side or the distance between two points. **Width** refers to the horizontal dimension, while **height** refers to the vertical dimension. Finally, **depth** is the distance from the surface to the farthest point.

In the Imperial System, measurements of area are typically expressed in units such as *inches, feet, miles, and acres*.

- Area

abbreviation | equivalents of the same system(imperial) | metric equivalent | |
---|---|---|---|

square mile | sq mi | 640 acres, or 102,400 square rods | 2.590 square kilometres |

acre | -- | 4,840 square yards, or 43,560 square feet | 0.405 hectare, or 4,047 square metres |

square rod | sq rd | 30.25 square yards, or 0.00625 acre | 25.293 square metres |

square yard | sq yd | 1,296 square inches, or 9 square feet | 0.836 square metre |

square foot | sq ft | 144 square inches, or 0.111 square yard | 0.093 square metre |

square inch | sq in | 0.0069 square foot, or 0.00077 square yard | 6.452 square centimetres |

- Length

abbreviation | equivalents of the same system(imperial) | metric equivalent | |
---|---|---|---|

nautical mile | nmi | 6,076 feet, or 1.151 miles | 1,852 metres |

mile | mi | 5,280 feet, 1,760 yards, or 320 rods | 1,609 metres, or 1.609 kilometres |

furlong | fur | 660 feet, 220 yards, or 1/8 mile | 201 metres |

rod | rd | 5.50 yards, or 16.5 feet | 5.029 metres |

fathom | fth | 6 feet, or 72 inches | 1.829 metres |

yard | yd | 3 feet, or 36 inches | 0.9144 metre |

foot | ft | 12 inches, or 0.333 yard | 30.48 centimetres |

inch | in | 0.083 foot, or 0.028 yard | 2.54 centimetres |

## Temperature

When we want to talk about temperature, we must know that there are differences between they way the world analyzes it and the way Americans do it. We mainly use Celsius whereas, Fahrenheit is used among Americans. The difference between them is that the *Celsius* scale, or *Centigrade* scale, is based on water freezing at 0°C and boiling at 100°C. On the *Fahrenheit* scale, however, water freezes at 32°F and boils at 212°F. Look at the formula below:

- 1 Celsius = 33.80 Fahrenheit

By using the formula above, we can easily convert Celsius degrees to Fahrenheit.

## Cooking measurments

When cooking, you might face different measurement units. Let's go through some of them:

- Converting gallons, quarts, pints, cups, ounces, tablespoons and teaspoons.

1 gallon | 4 quarts, 8 pints, 16 cups, 128 ounces and 3.8 liters |
---|---|

1 quart | 2 pints, 4 cups, 32 ounces and 950 ml |

1 pint | 2 cups, 16 ounces and 480 ml |

1 cup | 16 tablespoons, 8 ounces and 240 ml |

1 ounce | 2 tablespoons and 30 ml |

1 tablespoon | 3 teaspoons, 1/2 ounce and 15 ml |

1 teaspoon | 5 ml |

### Expressions for measuring

There are some expressions you might face in the cooking books, here we have explained some of them:

- Lightly packed
- Firmly packed
- Even / level
- Heaping / heaped
- Rounded

### Lightly packed

The ingredient is pushed lightly into the measuring device, only tightly enough to make sure no air pockets.

### Firmly packed

With a spoon, or by hand, the ingredient is pushed as tightly as possible into the measuring device.

### Even / level

A precise measure of an ingredient, get rid of all of the ingredients that rise above the rim of the measuring device. Sweeping across the top of the measure using the back of a knife or something like that is a common leveling method.

### Heaping / heaped

The highest amount of an ingredient that will stay on the measuring device.

### Rounded

Letting a measure of an ingredient accumulate above the rim of the measuring device by itself, into a soft, rounded shape.