# Fractions, Decimals and Percentages

A fraction is a particular form of writing numbers. In this lesson, we will learn how to use them.

## What Are Fractions?

**Fractions** are a way of expressing a part of a whole or a ratio of two numbers. A fraction consists of two numbers separated by a horizontal or diagonal line.

## Why Do We Use Fractions?

Fractions are used to refer to a **portion or part** of something else but __not__ the whole amount. Fractions are made of an ordinal and a cardinal number.

## Different Parts of a Fraction

Here are the different parts of a fraction:

**numerator**: is placed__above__the dividing line and indicates the parts that are selected. It is always a**cardinal number****dividing line**: a horizontal or diagonal bar which separates the parts of a fraction.**denominator**: is placed__under__the dividing line and represents the total number of equal parts in the whole. It is always an**ordinal number**.

## Fractions: Types

There are __four__ different types of fractions:

**Unit fractions****Proper fractions****Improper fractions****Mixed fractions**

### Unit Fractions

This is when the numerator is '1' and we read the **denominator** in a **singular** form.

Fractions | Written Form |
---|---|

1/2 | One half or a half |

1/9 | One ninth |

1/3 | One third |

1/4 | One forth or a quarter |

### Exceptions

- when the denominator is 2, the fraction is called a
**half**(not a 'second') - when the denominator is 4, the fraction is called a
**quarter**(not a 'fourth')

You have

I need two

'Halves' is the irregular plural form of 'half.'

### Proper Franctions

When the numerator of a fraction is bigger than '1', the **denominator** is read in **plural** form.

Fraction | Written Form |
---|---|

3/7 | Three sevenths |

2/3 | Two thirds |

2/5 | Two fifths |

6/8 | Six eighths |

### Improper Fractions

This is when the numerator is **bigger than** or **equal to** the denominator.

Fraction | Written Form |
---|---|

4/3 | Four thirds |

5/4 | Five fourths |

3/4 | Three fourths |

6/5 | Six fifths |

### Mixed Fractions

This is when there is a **whole number** next to a unit or proper fraction. To say the number, we say the whole number **first** followed by '**and**' and finally the **fraction number**.

6 3/5 | Six and three fifths |

2 3/4 | Two and three fourths |

4 1/2 | Four and a half |

Fraction | Written Form |
---|---|

1/2 | a half |

1/4 | a quarter |

I need to cut a board that is

I walked for

## Punctuation

### Warning

Do __not__ mix figures and words.

a ~~2~~ ~~thirds~~ decrease')

## What Are Decimals?

Numbers __smaller than one__ can be shown by **decimals**. In English, decimal numbers are separated by a **decimal point** and __not__ a comma.

## How to Read Out Decimals?

the numbers after the decimal point are read out **digit by digit**, __not__ as a compound number.

Decimal number | Written form |
---|---|

0.2 | Zero point two |

0.25 | Zero point two five |

1.032 | One point zero three two |

12.025 | Twelve point zero two five |

12.006 | Twelve point zero zero six |

### Tip!

Remember that in English, we use a **decimal point** for decimal numbers and a **comma** to separate thousands.

12.025

twelve point zero two five

12,025

twelve thousand and twenty five

### Warning

We __never__ use hundred and thousand after the decimal point.

## What are Percentages

Percentages are easy and commonly used in our everyday conversations. A percentage is a number or ratio that expresses a **fraction of 100** with the symbol '**%**'. To read them, we say the number and then the word **percent**. Check out some examples:

Percentages | How to Say |
---|---|

2% | two percent |

35% | thirty-five percent |

50% | fifty percent |

70% | seventy percent |

90.5% | ninety point five percent |

100% | a/one hundred percent |

We can also turn percentages into decimal numbers:

Percentage | In decimal number |
---|---|

50% | 0.5 |

24% | 0.24 |

2.4% | 0.024 |