And

You have used 'And' many times before and you will continue on using it as it is widely used word. In this lesson, we will discover all about it.

How to Use "And" in English?

'And' is a coordinating conjunction. In this lesson, we will learn how to discuss and use it.

'And' as a Coordinating Conjunction

Use

As was stated above, 'and' is a coordinating conjunction. Below, we are going to see how it can have different meanings:

  • 'And' is used to connect two nouns or adjectives together. Check out the following examples:

I want a Caramel Macchiato and a Latte.

'And' is used to connect two nouns here.

Sarah is both angry and frustrated.

Here, 'and' is used to connect two adjectives.

  • 'And' is used to join two phrases. Check out the following examples:

The boss demands a well-composed report and related pictures.

As you can see, 'and' is used to connect two phrases.

She has written eloquent analyses on contemporary novels and their origins.

  • 'And' can also be used to connect two sentences that have the same subject. Take a look at the following examples:

Go up the stage and read your proposal, Anna.

Here, the subject is implied because we have two imperative sentences.

My friend wants to come here and take a shower at our place.

Here, both sentences share the same subject.

I'm going on a trip, and my mother will join me there after a few days.

As you can see, each sentence can have a different meaning.

This pain is just too real, and it seems that I cannot do anything about it.

  • 'And' can sometimes be used instead of 'then', when the actions are taking place after the other. Take a look:

Why don't you go upstairs and clean up your room?

As you can see, if we replace 'and' with 'then', the sentence will still remain the same.

First we are going to visit Musée du Louvre, and we will have a lunch in a nearby café there.

  • We can sometimes use this coordinating conjunction to replace 'in order to'. Look:

Wait and see for yourself.

Here, it means 'wait to see'.

Step outside and calm your nerves a bit.

  • 'And' can sometimes be used to oppose two ideas. Study the following examples:

You call yourself friendly and you avoid your friends?

Here, 'and' has been sarcastically used to mean 'but'.

You belittle me every time and you say you love me?

Position in a Sentence

As you already know, coordinating conjunctions are used to connect two words, phrases, or clauses together. That is why these conjunctions always come between the words or the clauses they are connecting. Take a look below for more clarification:

I want to have a pizza and a lemonade.

Here, 'and' has been used to join to nouns together.

Walking alongside the beach and talking to each other, is what they enjoy the most.

Here, 'and' has been used to connect two phrases.

I like to drink tea and my mother wants to have coffee.

Here, 'and' is used to join two independent clauses.

Punctuation Rules

When we have a list of items and they are connected through 'and', we must have 'commas' after each item. However, putting a comma before the conjunction is optional here. Look:

My cat is cute, fluffy, and neat.

The students are well-dressed, well-mannered, and kind.

Also 'the students are well-dressed, well-mannered and kind.' is correct.

If we have only two words, there is no need for any commas. Look:

Hannah and I are going to the club.

(Not Hannah, and I...)

If we have two independent clauses, we usually add a comma before the conjunction. However, if one of the clauses is dependent, there is no need for a comma. Look below:

Melly is looking at me and biting her fingernails.

Here, the second clause is dependent and we do not need a comma.

They are going to the town, and I am staying home watching TV.

Here, we have two independent clauses.

Warning!

Please note that we do not start a sentence with 'and' in written, formal English.

Addition

We can use 'and' with numbers in different ways. Take a look:

Three and three are six.

Twenty and seventy are ninety.

  • When using fractions:

Have you ever been to café Platform Nine and Three Quarters?

As you can see, 'and' is used in the written form of the fraction.

The presentation will be finished in about two and a half hours' time.

  • When using compound numbers that are larger than 100:

Three thousand and five hundred dollars, miss.

There are two hundred and fifty students in this meeting.

And vs. Very

Although it might not look possible, these two coordinating conjunctions can sometimes replace one another in order to show emphasis. Let us see:

The music is very loud.

The music is getting louder and louder.

As you can see, we repeat the adjectives to emphasize the degree.

Gloriana screamed and screamed till she could no longer utter a sound.

Idioms with And

It is important to know that we can use this coordinating conjunction in some idioms. Take a look:

  • And so on/and so forth: This one is used when we want to connect similar things. Look:

We must ban all literary books such as novels, poems and so on.

  • And all: it is used to talk about everything else. Look:

She killed the animals, humans and all.

  • And all that: This one is used to talk about everything that is related to the subject mentioned. Look:

She enjoys ballet and all that.

Tip!

It might come in handy to know that 'and all' has another meaning and it is a slang among UK English speakers. Take a look:

  • And all: it means 'too':

I'd like a coffee and all.

Here, the sentence means that I like to have a coffee too.

Spoken Uses

Sometimes 'and' can function as a complete sentence. However, it is only used in spoken English. Take a look:

  • In spoken English, sometimes in novels and other literary works, we use 'and' to indicate that we want to know more:

A : I want to go out.

B : And?

  • When we want to announce something, begin a lecture, or start a TV show, and etc. we can begin our speech with 'and':

And now, ladies and gentlemen, I present to you the famous actor, Johnny Depp.

And our next guest is one of the notorious serial killers in all history.

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