'And' is a coordinating conjunction. In this lesson, we will learn how to discuss and use it.
'And' as a Coordinating Conjunction
As was stated above, 'and' is a coordinating conjunction. Below, we are going to see how it can have different meanings:
I want a Caramel Macchiato
'And' is used to connect two nouns here.
Sarah is both angry
Here, 'and' is used to connect two adjectives.
- 'And' is used to join two phrases. Check out the following examples:
The boss demands a well-composed report
As you can see, 'and' is used to connect two phrases.
She has written eloquent analyses on contemporary novels
Go up the stage
Here, the subject is implied because we have two imperative sentences.
My friend wants to come here
Here, both sentences share the same subject.
- 'And' is also used to combine two independent clauses. Check out the examples below:
I'm going on a trip,
As you can see, each sentence can have a different meaning.
This pain is just too real,
- 'And' can sometimes be used instead of 'then', when the actions are taking place after the other. Take a look:
Why don't you go upstairs
As you can see, if we replace 'and' with 'then', the sentence will still remain the same.
First we are going to visit Musée du Louvre,
- We can sometimes use this coordinating conjunction to replace 'in order to'. Look:
Here, it means 'wait to see'.
- 'And' can sometimes be used to oppose two ideas. Study the following examples:
You call yourself friendly
Here, 'and' has been sarcastically used to mean 'but'.
You belittle me every time
Position in a Sentence
As you already know, coordinating conjunctions are used to connect two words, phrases, or clauses together. That is why these conjunctions always come between the words or the clauses they are connecting. Take a look below for more clarification:
I want to have a pizza
Here, 'and' has been used to join to nouns together.
Walking alongside the beach
Here, 'and' has been used to connect two phrases.
I like to drink tea
Here, 'and' is used to join two independent clauses.
When we have a list of items and they are connected through 'and', we must have 'commas' after each item. However, putting a comma before the conjunction is optional here. Look:
My cat is cute, fluffy,
The students are well-dressed, well-mannered,
Also 'the students are well-dressed, well-mannered and kind.' is correct.
If we have only two words, there is no need for any commas. Look:
(Not Hannah, and I...)
If we have two independent clauses, we usually add a comma before the conjunction. However, if one of the clauses is dependent, there is no need for a comma. Look below:
Melly is looking at me
Here, the second clause is dependent and we do not need a comma.
They are going to the town,
Here, we have two independent clauses.
Please note that we do not start a sentence with 'and' in written, formal English.
We can use 'and' with numbers in different ways. Take a look:
- When we want to add numbers:
- When using fractions:
Have you ever been to café Platform Nine
As you can see, 'and' is used in the written form of the fraction.
The presentation will be finished in about two
- When using compound numbers that are larger than 100:
There are two hundred
And vs. Very
Although it might not look possible, these two coordinating conjunctions can sometimes replace one another in order to show emphasis. Let us see:
The music is
The music is getting louder
As you can see, we repeat the adjectives to emphasize the degree.
Idioms with And
It is important to know that we can use this coordinating conjunction in some idioms. Take a look:
- And so on/and so forth: This one is used when we want to connect similar things. Look:
We must ban all literary books such as novels, poems
- And all: it is used to talk about everything else. Look:
She killed the animals, humans
- And all that: This one is used to talk about everything that is related to the subject mentioned. Look:
She enjoys ballet
It might come in handy to know that 'and all' has another meaning and it is a slang among UK English speakers. Take a look:
- And all: it means 'too':
I'd like a coffee
Here, the sentence means that I like to have a coffee too.
Sometimes 'and' can function as a complete sentence. However, it is only used in spoken English. Take a look:
- In spoken English, sometimes in novels and other literary works, we use 'and' to indicate that we want to know more:
- When we want to announce something, begin a lecture, or start a TV show, and etc. we can begin our speech with 'and':
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