# By vs. Within

'By' and 'within' may confuse learners. In this lesson, we will find out why and learn their uses and differences.

### What Is Their Main Difference?

The main difference between the prepositions of time 'by' and 'within' is that 'by' refers to a point in time while 'within' refers to a period of time.

## Talking about Time

• 'By' is used to refer to a point in time. In other word, it shows an action at or before a specific time.

Submit your assignments by Tuesday.

You have by July 13th to finish the articles.

• 'Within' as a preposition of time is used to refer to a period of time. In other words, it is used to show something happens before the end of a time period.

The product must be used within 12 months.

The tickets were sold out within three hours.

## Talking about Location

• 'By' is used as a preposition of place to show that something is located near or at the side of something else.

The girl was always standing by his side.

They found the body by the harbor.

• 'Within' is also used to show that something is inside something else or a particular area.

The men were buried within the hotel walls.

The secret passage is deep within the woods.

### Why Are They Confused?

Learners with first languages such as Italian may confuse these two words as 'per' and 'by' have the same equivalence when translated into Italian.

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