Participle Prepositions for intermediate learners

Some participles (i.e. verbs ending with '-ing', '-en' or '-ed') can sometimes act as a preposition. In this lesson, we will learn about the most common ones.

"Participle Prepositions" in English Grammar

What Are Participle Prepositions?

Participles are verbs that typically end in '-ing', '-ed', or '-en'. When these words are used as prepositions, we call them participle prepositions.

Common Participle Prepositions

The list below shows some of the most common participle prepositions in English:

  • Including
  • Considering
  • Regarding

Now, let us examine how each one is used.


When we want to indicate that someone or something is part of a larger group, we can use the participle preposition 'including'. Let us take a look at some examples below:

Throughout history, some cities conducted witch trials, including Salem.

She has invited many old friends to her party, including John Alden.


When we want to indicate that we will take something into account or think about something, we can use the participle preposition 'considering'. Take a look at the following examples:

Considering the hardships she has been through, it's still unbelievable that she wants to see the good in people.

Considering your excuse, the professor will rethink her decision.


When we want to show that something is related to or concerning another thing or topic, we can use the participle preposition 'regarding'. Study the following examples:

We had a discussion today regarding Shakespeare's play 'A Mid Summer Night's Dream'.

She asked the critic some questions regarding his harsh comments.


Keep in mind that 'notwithstanding' can also function as a participle preposition. In that case, it means 'in spite of'. Let us take a look at some examples:

Notwithstanding her betrayal, she dared to talk to me blatantly again.

Notwithstanding all the hardships, he still had a thing for life.


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Post means after therefore a preposition that comes after its complement or object is called a postposition.


Particles are words that have a grammatical function but do not fit into the main parts of speech. In order to learn about them, start studying them right here!


To connect two sentences to each other, we need some words to link them without breaking the structure of the sentences. Let us learn these linking words.

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