What Are Participles?
There are three types of participles in English:
Now, let us explore the form an functions of each type.
To form present participles, we typically add an '-ing' to the base form of the verb. Look at the following examples:
Look → look
Ask → ask
Sell → sell
As already mentioned, present participles are typically formed by adding '-ing' to the base form of the verb. However, there are some exceptions to this rule. For instance, if the verb ends in '-ie', the '-ie' is replaced with '-y' before adding '-ing' to the verb. Take a look at the following examples:
Another exception is when the verb ends in '-e'. In this case, the '-e' is replaced with an '-ing'. Take a look at the following examples:
Present Participles as Nouns
Lana wanted to practice
As you can see, the present participle is a noun here and is serving as the object of the verb.
Here, the present participle is a noun and it serves as the subject of the sentence.
What do you think about
As you can see, the present participle is the object of a preposition in the sentence.
Present participles can also be used to form compound nouns. Take a look at the following examples:
Present Participles as Adjectives
We can use present participles to replace a verbal clause with an adjective. Check out the following examples:
As you can see, we can shorten sentences using present participles as adjectives.
To form past participles, we mainly add an '-ed' or '-d' to the end of the verb. Take a look at the following examples:
Keep in mind that not all verbs form their past tense by adding '-ed'. Some verbs are irregular, and their past tense form significantly changes compared to the base form. Take a look at some examples below:
When forming past participles from regular verbs, it's important to keep a few details in mind. For instance, if the verb ends in an '-e', simply add '-d' to the end of it. Take a look at the following examples:
Live → live
If the verb ends in a consonant, double the final letter before adding an '-ed' to it. Study the following examples:
Please note that not all regular verbs ending in "-y" have the same past participle form. For some of these verbs, we remove the '-y' and replace it with '-ie' before adding "-d" or "-ed" to form the past participle. Take a look at the following examples:
Past Participles as Adjectives
We can use past participles to create verbal adjectives. Take a look at the following examples:
The frog was dead. → The
The window was broken. → The
The table cloth was torn. → The
To form a perfect participle phrase we add 'having' to the past participle form. For example:
The perfect participle phrase is used to show that one action was completed before another action began. It is often used in complex sentences to express a sequence of events. Pay attention to the example:
Having finished her dinner, she went to bed.
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