Hyphens and Dashes

Hyphens and dashes have to be used properly as punctuation marks to avoid confusion. In this lesson, we will learn all about them.

Hyphens and Dashes in English

What Are Hyphens?

Hyphens are punctuation marks (-) that are used to make compound combinations.

Why Do We Use Hyphens?

They are used to form:

Join Prefixes to Main Parts

Using a prefix can change the meaning of the main parts. Prefixes are joined to the main noun or verb by a hyphen. Here are a few examples:

  • re-press
  • ex-boyfriend
  • anti-aircraft
  • self-service

Forming Compound Nouns

To form a compound noun, we use a hyphen between the nouns. Here are the examples:

  • passer-by
  • daughter-in-law
  • comedy-ballet
  • dinner-dance
  • soldier-statesman
  • tractor-trailer

Forming Compound Adjectives

Sometimes we can use hyphens between numbers and nouns to use them as a single adjective before nouns. These are called compound adjectives. For example:

  • four-bedroom house
  • absent-minded person
  • wishy-washy smoothie
  • born-again baby
  • six-page book
  • two-year-old girl

Warning

Do not hyphenate the adverbs and the adjectives that come after them. Here are the examples:

Highly stressed → ✗highly-stressed

What Are Dashes?

Dashes (also called em dashes) are actually formed by putting two hyphens beside each other without any space (—). Dashes are slightly longer than hyphens.

Why Do We Use Dashes?

When we want to name a set of appositives we should put them between dashes. For example:

Do not forget to bring the stuff—flasher, ball, match, etc.

The puppy—a golden retriever—is my newest pet.

When we want to repeat an emphatic part or phrase of a sentence, we can use a dash at the beginning of the emphatic part. Check out these examples.

The beautiful sky—the clear blue sky—was full of the sea birds.

His eyes—his ocean blue eyes—forced me think about him all the time.

Review

Hyphens and dashes are used to make special combinations.

Hyphens are widely used to make:

  • compound nouns
  • compound adjectives

Dashes are usually used to express:

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