What Is Past Participle?
Past participles are a type of verb form that are used to form several tenses, including the present perfect, past perfect, and passive voice. They are also used to form participial phrases, which serve as adjectives in a sentence.
Past Participle: Form
The past participle is the third principal part of a verb. With regular verbs, we can simply form past participles by adding '-ed,' '-d,' or '-t' to the base form of the regular verb. Check out the examples:
To look →
To work →
Besides adding '-ed', '-d', or '-t' to a verb, there are several irregular verbs in English that form their past participles in different ways. It's important to memorize these irregular verbs because they don't follow the typical pattern. For example:
To be →
To write →
Now pay attention to their use in sentences:
When I got home my husband had already
there are certain spelling rules to be followed when forming the past participle of regular verbs:
- If the verb ends in a vowel + 'y' add 'ed'.
- If the verb ends in a consonant + 'y', 'y' is replaced by '-i' before 'ed' is added.
- If the verb ends with the vowel '-e' add '-d' after it.
- If a monosyllabic verb ends in consonant + vowel + consonant, double the final consonant before 'ed.'
- If the verb has more than one syllable, double the final consonant before 'ed' only if the final syllable is stressed.
- If the final syllable of the verb is not stressed, do not double the final consonant before 'ed.'
Past Participles and Tenses
The table below presents a list of the tenses that use the past participle, along with some examples. The use of these participles is marked by the 'perfect' forms.
|The present perfect||
|The past perfect||
|The future perfect||
|The third conditional||
|Modals in the past||
|The passive form||
Apple company was
Past Participle Adjectives
Past participles can also be used as adjectives in participial phrases to modify a noun or a pronoun. Take a look at the examples:
He was dead
Here, 'tired' as an adjective modifies the pronoun 'he'.
I was really
Participle phrases have a participle at the beginning which is followed by a modifier, an object, or a complement. The entire phrase tends to act as an adjective, modifying nouns or pronouns. They tend to describe situations that happen before the main action of the sentence. Pay attention to the examples:
I finally found the hose
We read the mails
Participle clauses are dependent clauses that use the participle form of the verb. They are typically used to shorten the main clause. Participle clauses are used to indicate time, reason, and situation and can be used in passive sentences. For example:
Participles are special forms of verbs that are used as:
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