Since vs. Hence

'Since' and 'hence' talk about reasons and results. In this lesson, we will learn their similarities and differences.

"Since" vs. "Hence" in the English grammar

What is their main difference?

'Since' and 'hence' are both used to indicate time. The main difference between 'since' and 'hence' is in their parts of speech. 'Since' is a conjunction while 'hence' is an adverb.

Similarities and differences

Parts of Speech

'Since' is a conjunction, preposition, and adverb.

Let's talk since the train's departure is delayed.

Here, 'since' is a conjunction.

We haven't won any game since 2019.

Here, 'since' is a preposition.

We had a fight and I haven't seen him since.

Here, 'since' is a adverb.

'Hence' is an adverb.

He insults me every day; hence the hatred.

He had a car crash; hence the new car.

Usage

'Since' describes cause and effect. In other words, it expresses reason and result. For instance:

He didn't attend the party since he was not invited.

She is unpopular since she is always rude.

'Hence' describes an action as a result of and is also used to denote actions from now on. It highlights an action as a result of or as a consequence of another action or event. For example:

He broke his leg earlier; hence will not attend the party.

It was raining all day; hence the flooded roads.

Position in a sentence

'Since' can be used in the beginning and in the middle of a sentence. 'Since' as an adverb can be placed at the end of the sentence.

Since he lost his job, he can't afford to fix his car.

We were interested since we were curious.

She had a fight with me and I haven't seen her since.

'Hence' can be used in the beginning and in the middle of a sentence.

A shot was heard; hence the police were called.

Hence, I will not be attending the meeting due to the poor weather.

Common Mistake

'Hence' is an adverb, not a conjunction, therefore it cannot join two independent clauses together.

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