Capitalization is to write the first letter of a word in uppercase. In this lesson, you will learn all the rules about this subject.

Capitalization Rules in English

What Is Capitalization?

Capitalization is to write the first letter of a word in uppercase and the others in lowercase.

When Do We Use Capitalization

  • capitalization in sentences
  • capitalization in headlines
  • capitalization in job titles
  • capitalization in directions
  • capitalization with a colon
  • capitalization in salutation and closing

Let us learn the rules one by one:

Capitalization in Sentences

When you start a new sentence, the initial word has to be capitalized. After each period, a new sentence starts, so you need to capitalize the first word. For example:

He needs to see a doctor.

She saw him yesterday. He was such a looser.

Using a Pronoun

When we are using the first person singular subject pronoun, we capitalize it. Remember, if the first person singular pronoun is objective or anything else other than the subjective pronoun, you do not need to capitalize it. Here are the examples:

They want to talk with you and I in person.

In this example, the pronoun 'they' is capitalized because it is used at the beginning of the sentence. But the pronoun 'I' is always capitalized even in the middle of a sentence.

I want to take a trip to New York.

Referring to God

When you want to refer to a God in mostly religious contexts, capitalize the first letter of it. Such as God, Jesus, Christ, etc. Check out the examples:

They took an oath to Jesus.

Oh my God, I cannot believe it.

Using a Proper Noun

Proper nouns are capitalized wherever they are used in a sentence. Here are the occasions in which we use a proper noun:

  • brand nouns: Belle Chic, Gucci, Fendi, Versace, etc.
  • companies: Wesco, Coca-Cola, Apple, Goldman Sachs, etc.
  • days of the week: Sunday, Monday, Friday, etc.
  • months: June, July, March, April, etc.
  • government organizations: United States Congress, Department of Commerce, Department of Defense, etc.
  • historical episodes: Fall of Berlin, Vietnam War, Gulf War, Bin Laden, etc.
  • holidays: Christmas, New Year's Day, Labor Day, etc.
  • man-made structures: The Burj, Dubai, Taj Mahal, La Sagrada Familia, etc.
  • name of people: Sarah, Pietro, Hanna, etc.
  • organizations: Dream Center, Angel Time, Saved Dreams, etc.
  • planets: Uranus, Saturn, Earth, Mars, etc.
  • countries and nationalities: English, France, Iran, etc.
  • religion: Taoism, Christianity, Buddhism, Islam, etc.
  • streets, roads: Brick Lane, Piccadilly, Oxford Street, etc.
  • special occasions: Mother's Day, Valentine's Day, Halloween, etc.

Using a Proper Adjective

Some adjectives are derived from proper nouns. When we want to use these adjectives we have to capitalize them. These adjectives are called proper adjectives. Here are a few examples:

They were Buddhist.

I am stressed about the Spanish exam.

Capitalization in Headlines and Titles

Capitalization in headlines and titles are different in various styles; however, there is a general rule expressed in this lesson, as follows:

  • capitalize the main word in a title
  • do not capitalize prepositions and articles

Important words in a title are adjectives, nouns, adverbs, pronouns, verbs, and subordinating conjunctions. Here are a few examples of capitalization in titles:

What Are Modal Verbs?

There Are Five of Us

These rules are usually used for books, articles and headlines.


Remember not to capitalize articles, coordinate conjunctions, and prepositions. Here are the examples:

One of the Most Important Symptoms

Find It in Yourself

Capitalization in Job Titles

There are some occasions in which you use capitalization job titles. Check out the list:

  • when the job title is used on the signature line of a letter
  • when the job title is used immediately before a name (honorific title)
  • when the job title is used to address someone directly

Here are a few examples:

Doctor Gomez was waiting for the nurses to start the surgery.

I talked to Professor yesterday.

I look forward to your speech, Mr. President.

Capitalization in Direction

When we use directions to refer to a specific region, we capitalize the direction. Here are a few examples:

They reached the North Pole.

Northern Ireland was inhabited by Gaels.

Capitalization with a Colon

There are general rules to use capitalization after a colon, as follows on the list:

  • do not capitalize, if there is a list after the colon
  • do not capitalize after a colon if you continue the previous sentence
  • use capitalization if the word after the colon is a proper noun
  • use capitalization if there is a new sentence after the colon

Here are a few examples that may help you learn the rules better:

The ingredients are: sugar, eggs, and flours.

I said: We want to start a new company.

Capitalization in Salutation and Closing

The name or words that are used in closing or salutation of a letter or email is always capitalized. Here are a few examples:


Dear John,



Capitalization is to write the first letter of a word in uppercase. we use it in:

  • sentences
  • headlines
  • job titles
  • directions
  • salutation and closing


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