What Are Pro-forms?
'Pro-forms' are words, phrases, or clauses that substitute for other words or phrases in a sentence. They are used to avoid repetition and make a sentence more concise and easier to understand. Remember, these pro-forms do not have a logical meaning when used alone. They depend on another part of the sentence to make sense.
There are different types of pro-forms in English grammar. Follow the article to get to know each of them.
Interrogative pro-forms are used in questions and stand for the word or phrase that is being questioned. There are five main interrogative pro-forms in English:
We can use the word 'any' as a pro-form that stands for a word, phrase, or even clause. Usually, it refers to the quantity or amount of something. Check out the examples:
They told me to take some red fresh apples with me but unfortunately I couldn't buy
Here the word 'any' is the substitute for the phrase 'red fresh apples.'
I wanted to drink coffee but I didn't have
Here the term 'any' refers back to the word 'coffee.'
'Some' is used as a pro-form that stands for a word, phrase, or clause. It usually refers back to a quantity or amount. Here are some examples:
Do you like tea? Here! Drink
Do we need maps? I think we may have
The phrase 'do so' is used as a pro-form that stands for a clause. Here are some examples:
It said I had to add the eggs and I
You told me to dedicate my life to what I love and I will
Each, Some, Either, Neither, Both, None
'Each, either, neither, none' are not necessarily pronouns but when it comes to pro-forms they are usually used as pronouns in a sentence. These words are used in the sentence to represent an antecedent. For example:
We took a bar of chocolate
Maria and Hanna are best friends, but
There were two bars of chocolate and
The phrase 'the same' can be used as a pro-form to refer back to a phrase or clause. Usually, it is used to indicate approval. Check out the examples:
She will have salad and I'll have
He loves me and I feel
'Partitives' usually refer to a particular amount of something, whether they are definite or indefinite amounts. All kinds of partitives can be used on their own to stand for a phrase.
I love strawberry cakes. Can I have a
The doctor said I have had too much bread in the last two years, so now I am just allowed to have a
'Demonstratives' can be used as pro-forms to refer to a clause, phrase, or word. But usually, they are used as a substitute for a clause. Here are the examples:
Ernest says mean things to others.
You are too kind and
Too and Either
Sometimes when we want to show that a clause applies to us as well, we use 'either' or 'too'. 'Either' is used to say a negative clause is true for someone and 'too' is used to confirm an affirmative clause.
I think he was a good person,
+'Ah, I hate this man.' -'You know, I don't like him
Pro-adverbs are used as an alternative for an adverb phrase, a word, or even a clause. Let us take a look at the examples:
I am going to the party because my girlfriend is
My house is warm and friendly; that's why he likes it in
Pro-forms are used alternatively for other words, phrases, or clauses. remember pro-forms cannot be used alone when there is not any background for the information. check out the list below to get to know different types of pro-forms.