Pro-forms

Understanding pronouns enable us to understand pro-forms in English very well. Pro-forms are alternatives that are put in the position of words, phrases, etc.

What Are Pro-forms in English?

What Are Pro-forms?

'Pro-forms' are words that are used as substitutes for other words, phrases, clauses,, etc. Remember, these pro-forms do not imply a logical meaning when they are used alone. It means pro-forms depend on another part of the sentence to make sense.

What Are Different Types of Pro-forms?

There are different types of pro-forms in English grammar. So follow the article to get to know each of them, one by one.

Pronouns

'pronouns' replace nouns to avoid unnecessary repetitions. It is important to know that you will always need an antecedent for the pronoun to refer back to it. Here are a few examples:

Isaac and Ross hit one another on the street.

(You) look at yourself. You look sick.

Marco said he would be here in ten minutes.

Pro-interrogatives

'Interrogative pro-forms' are used in questions and stand for the item that is being questioned. There are five main interrogative pro-forms in English:

What would you do if you were in my shoes?

What is her reason?

Which one is your favorite?

Which picture seems better?

Who sold the cow?

Who is that tall woman in black suit?

Whose shirt is it?

Whose mother is calling?

'who' acting as a pro-interrogative

Whom did you go out with?

Whom have you been with in Chicago?

Any as a Pro-form

We can use the term 'any' as the pro-form that stands for a word, phrase, or even a clause. Usually, it refers to a quantity or amount of something. Check out the examples:

They told me to take some red fresh apples with me but unfortunately I couldn't buy any.

Here the word 'any' is the substitute for the phrase 'red fresh apples.'

I wanted to drink coffee but I couldn't get any.

Here the term 'any' refer back to the word 'coffee.'

Some as a Pro-form

'some' is used as a pro-form that stands for a word, phrase, or clause. It usually refers back to a quantity or amount. Here are some examples:

Do you like tea? Here! Drink some.

Do we need maps? I think we may have some here.

Do So as a Pro-form

The phrase 'do so' is used as a pro-form that stands for a clause. Here are some examples that can help you understand:

It said I had to add the eggs and I did so.

You told me to dedicate my life to what I love and I will do so.

Each, Some, Either, Neither, Both, None as Pro-forms

'Each, either, neither, none' are not necessarily pronouns but when it comes to pro-forms they are usually used as pronouns in a sentence. These words are put in the sentence to represent an antecedent. For example:

We took a bar of chocolate each.

Maria and Hanna are best friends, but both want to be Jimmy's girlfriend.

There were two bars of chocolate and either was my favorite.

The Same as pro-form

The phrase 'the same' can be used as a pro-form to refer back to a phrase or clause. Usually, it is used to indicate approval. Check out the examples:

She will have salad and I'll have the same.

He loves me and I feel the same.

Partitives as Pro-forms

'Partitives' usually refer to a particular amount of something, whether they are definite or indefinite amounts. All kinds of partitives can be used alone to stand for a phrase.

I love strawberry cakes. Can I have a slice?

The doctor told that I have had too much bread in the last two years, so, now I am just allowed to have a loaf per day.

Demonstratives as Pro-forms

'Demonstratives' can be used as pro-forms to refer to a clause, phrase, or word. But usually, they are used as a substitute for a clause. Here are the examples:

Ernest tells mean things to others. That I cannot stand anymore.

You are too kind and this is what makes you different.

Too and Either as Pro-forms

Sometimes when we want to approve that a clause is correct for us as well, we use 'either' and 'too'. 'Either' is used to say a negative clause is true for someone and 'too' is used to confirm an affirmative clause.

I think he was a good person, too.

'Ah, I hate this man.' 'You know, I don't like him either.'

Pro-adverbs

Pro-adverbs are used as an alternative for an adverb phrase or word or even a clause. Let us take a look at the examples:

I am going to the party because my girlfriend is there.

My house is warm and friendly; that's why he likes it in here.

Review

Pro-forms are used alternatively for other words, phrases, or clauses. remember pro-forms cannot be used alone when there is not any background for the information. check out the list below to get to know different types of pro-forms.

  • pronouns
  • pro-interrogatives
  • pro-adverbs
  • pro-demonstratives
  • pro-partitives

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