Little vs. Some
Both of the two words are quantifiers and they are misused a lot but if you know the meanings. It would make no confusion for you.
Some vs. Few
'Some' and 'few' both refer to a quantity. So there is always a challenge to choose between them.
Some vs. Any
The general rule is to use 'some' in positive, and 'any' in negative and interrogative sentences.
Some vs. Several
'Some' and 'several' are quantifiers, so it is important to know their differences to use them in the right way.