What Are Gerunds?
To create a gerund, simply add '-ing' to the base form of the main verb. For example:
sleep → sleep
work → work
Sometimes the spelling of the verb changes when adding '-ing' to form gerunds. The spelling rules that are to be observed when forming gerunds are discussed below.
- If the verb ends in consonant + stressed vowel + consonant, double the final letter before adding '-ing'.
- If the verb ends in consonant + unstressed vowel + consonant, do not double the final letter.
- If the verb ends in 'ie,' change it to 'y' before adding '-ing'.
- If the verb ends in vowel + consonant + 'e', omit the 'e' before adding '-ing'.
1. Gerunds as Subjects
Gerunds can serve as the subject of the verb. Look at these examples:
2. Gerunds as Objects
Gerunds can also serve as the objects of the verb. Look at the examples:
3. Gerunds as Objects of Prepositions
When the gerund appears after a preposition, it serves as the object of preposition. For example:
I'm very good at
I'm afraid of
4. Gerunds as Subject Complements
Gerunds can be used as the subject complement of the linking verb 'be.' For example:
The best thing about my trip to Japan was
A good way to lose weight is
Gerunds vs. Present Participles
Both gerunds and present participles are created from a verb, and both end in –ing. However, they have different functions:
- Gerunds function as nouns
- Present participles function as verbs or adjectives
A gerund is a nominal structure made by adding -ing to the main verb to be used as:
- the subject of a verb
- the object of a verb
- the object of a preposition
- a subject complement
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