What Are Universal Pro-forms?
Universal pro-forms are used to refer to the entirety of something, either by addressing each member of a complete group individually or by referring to the group as a whole.
When Do We Use Universal Pro-forms?
We use universal pro-forms when we want to refer to all members of a complete group of something. For example:
(refers to the whole group)
(focuses on each individual member of the whole group)
|every||everybody (person)||everywhere (place)|
|each||everyone (person)||every time (time)|
|all||everything (thing)||every way (manner)|
There are some uncommon universal words that are rarely used. Here is the list:
- everywhence (adverb of source)
- everywhither (adverb of purpose)
- everywhen (adverb of time)
- everywise (adverb of manner)
Universal Words in Positive Statements
Universal words are typically used in affirmative sentences. When we use a universal word, we indicate a general, all-inclusive, and nonspecific group. For example:
Universal Words in Negative Sentences
Universal Words can be used in negative sentences.
I don't know
Universals such as 'every' and 'all' can also be negated by adding the word 'not' before them:
Do not use 'each' in negative clauses. Use 'none' instead:
Each of the answers was correct.')
Universal Words in Questions
Universal words can be used in negative and positive questions to refer to a whole group:
Don't you think
Universal Words: Number
Most universal words take singular verbs because they either represent a single entity or a collective group of entities that are treated as a single unit. Similar to collective nouns, universal words are used with singular verbs and pronouns. For example:
Plural universal words take plural verbs.
Some universal words can go with either a plural or a singular verb, depending on the noun they're referring to. For example:
We use 'all' with plural and uncountable nouns and 'every' with singular nouns.
'Each' is used before a singular noun with a singular verb. It can also be used before 'of' and a plural noun. The verb should still be singular:
Distributives refer to a group of people or things, and to individual members of the group. They show different ways of looking at the individuals within a group, and they express how something is distributed, shared, or divided.
'Each' and 'every' are distributives. Both have the same general meaning. They refer to all members of a group considered individually.
- 'Every' is used to talk about things collectively as a group rather than individually
- 'Each' is used to talk about the individual members of a group as separate entities
We cannot use 'every' when we want to refer to two things. It is not commonly used with small numbers.
Each vs. Every
'Each' is used to refer to the people or things in a group separately, one by one. 'Every', on the other hand, is used to refer to the whole group of people or things together. When 'each' is used to refer to the subject of the clause, it usually appears between the subject and the main verb, after the modal verb or first auxiliary verb, or after 'be' as a main verb. The table below summarizes the differences between these two words:
|can be used for two persons or things||used for three or more persons or things|
|can be used as a pronoun||has to be used before a noun|
|can be used before a verb||used for repeated actions|
All vs. Every
'All' is used with a plural noun and a plural verb, while 'every' is used with a singular noun and a singular verb. 'Every' also implies 'without exception'.
'Winners' is a plural noun and 'receive' is a plural verb.
'Winner' is a singular noun and 'receives' is a singular verb.
We use 'all' with uncountable nouns because they cannot be counted individually. For example:
every art', because we cannot count art)
All vs. Each
'All' refers to the entire group as a whole. 'Each' refers to the individual members of the group.
I say hello to
It means the speaker just say the word 'hello' once.
I say hello to
It means the speaker say 'hello A, hello B, Hello C, hello D, etc. until it has been said to all of the guest individually.
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Pro-adverbs are pro-forms that take the place of adverbs. In this lesson, we are going to learn about its types and functions.
An assertive pro-form is a type of word that stands in for another word, phrase, clause, or sentence where the truth of a positive statement is asserted.
Non-assertive Pro-forms refer to a group of words or phrases that refer to specific things/persons, but it is not important to mention what.
Negative pro-forms are special function words that we use when we want to refer to the absence of people, things, or places.