What Are Conjunctive Adverbs?
Common Conjunctive Adverbs
Some common examples of conjunctive adverbs are:
If you are not going to be honest with him
This is an unpleasant disease.
Similarity with Conjunctions
A conjunctive adverb acts exactly like coordinating conjunctions (and, but, or, so, for, yet, nor), i.e. it brings together two complete thoughts. They use the second clause to modify the first clause like an adverb.
She slept late at night
I was so happy
Difference with Conjunctions
The semantic meaning of conjunctive adverbs is not as strong as coordinating conjunctions and their punctuation rules are different. 'Coordinating conjunctions' are sometimes confused with the 'conjunctive adverbs.' Both of them are used to link two independent clauses together. 'Coordinating conjunctions' link two clauses that are equally emphasized while conjunctive adverbs transit one complete idea to another. Here are the examples:
She is so rich,
Conjunctive Adverbs: Uses
A conjunctive adverb is a part of speech that is used to connect one clause to another. They are used to indicate about:
- cause and effect
- providing examples
- showing sequence
Use #1: Cause and Effect
Some conjunctive adverbs can indicate the cause and effect of an action. In this case, the first clause is the cause, and the second clause is the effect. These conjunctive adverbs include:
She couldn't attend the swimming competition
They have had many problems;
She took an ill turn, but
Use #2: Addition
Conjunctive adverbs can also add an idea to the first clause. Here are some possible conjunctive adverbs to show addition:
- in addition
We have used woods to make this bridge.
I study Italian,
Use #3: Comparison
Conjunctive adverbs can also be used to compare and contrast two ideas. One idea is in the first clause, and the second idea comes after the conjunctive adverb. Examples of comparative conjunctive adverbs are:
We can watch a movie, or
The mushrooms were delicious.
Use #4: Contrast
Indicating the contrast between two ideas is another use of conjunctive adverbs. Look at some eamples of conjunctive adverbs that show contrast:
My mother baked the cake,
I started to cry in front of every one,
Use #5: Providing Examples
In order to explain what you mean or to support an argument, you can use examples or evidence to back it up. You can use conjunctive adverbs to introduce them:
- for example
- for instance
- that is
What you eat can cause illnesses;
Use #6: Summarizing
Sometimes you need to sum up your argument after stating all the details. You can use some conjunctive adverbs to do that:
- in conclusion
- in summary
- to sum up
- in brief
- in short
We talked and I cried then he started making excuses.
These small particles can cause cancer and different kinds of disease.
Use #7: Showing Sequence
My cousin cooked the dinner
She was acting weird.
Use #8: Time
Conjunctive adverbs can also show time. They tell us when the first clause happened and when the second clause happened. Examples of conjunctive adverbs that show time are:
She moved out last September and I haven't seen her
Liam is getting married in June.
Use #9: Emphasis
Conjunctive adverbs can be used to put emphasis on a clause. Emphatic conjunctive adversb connect two similar thoughts, with the second thought being more emphatic. Take a look at some examples of these adverbs:
- of course
He is late again,
Conjunctive Adverbs: Punctuation Rules
Full Stop, Semicolon, or Comma?
If the clauses before and after the conjunctive adverb are independent ones and can stand on their own, you better use a semicolon before them. Otherwise, use a period.
Nina runs a catering company.
To link two independent clauses in one sentence conjunctive adverbs are often followed by a comma or they themselves follow a semicolon. Check out the examples.
You need to try harder;
We wanted to play outside;
Conjunctive adverbs can be easily used at the beginning of the first clause. The only important point is that they must be followed by a comma.
A conjunctive adverb like most adverbs can appear almost anywhere in the clause. When it is appearing in the middle of the clause, the conjunctive adverb is usually set off by commas on either side.
I couldn't buy you a suitable present,
You had every right to say that. It was,
If the conjunctive adverb is a one-syllable word, no comma is necessary before the adverb.
She asked not to leave
Mix the flour and butter
When conjunctive adverbs can also appear as the first word in a sentence. In this case, also add a comma after it.
Conjunctive Adverbs: Placement
Conjunctive adverbs commonly appear:
- at the beginning of the sentence
- between the subject and the first verb
- at the end of the sentence
She already had a lot of experience.
This isn't a job that needs a team work; a single person,
'Every man must dies.' 'We will die
- What Are Conjunctive Adverbs?
- Conjunctive Adverbs: Placement