What Are Conjunctive Adverbs?
A conjunctive adverb (also called adverbial conjunction, or subordinating adverb) is an adverb or adverbial phrase that is used to connect ideas and show the relationship between two independent clauses in a sentence. They provide a transition between the clauses and help to make the writing more cohesive and coherent.
Common Conjunctive Adverbs
Some common examples of conjunctive adverbs are:
Now pay attention to some examples:
If you are not going to be honest with him
This is an unpleasant disease.
Similarity with Conjunctions
A conjunctive adverb acts exactly like coordinating conjunctions (and, but, or, so, for, yet, nor), i.e. it brings together two complete thoughts. They use the second clause to modify the first clause like an adverb.
She slept late at night
He studied for hours,
Difference with Conjunctions
Conjunctions (such as "and," "but," and "or") are words that connect words, phrases, or clauses of equal syntactic importance. They do not modify the clauses they connect, but simply join them together.
Conjunctive adverbs, on the other hand, are words that connect two independent clauses and show the relationship between them. They are used to indicate logical connections between ideas and can modify the clause that comes after them, and they are usually set off by a comma or semicolon.
Another difference is that conjunctions are often used to create shorter, more concise sentences, while conjunctive adverbs are often used to create longer, more complex sentences with a greater level of detail and nuance.
Pay attention to the examples:
She is so rich,
Conjunctive Adverbs: Uses
A conjunctive adverb is a part of speech that is used to connect one clause to another. They are used to:
- express cause and effect
- add details
- provide examples
- show sequence
- show emphasis
- indicate time
1. Expressing Cause and Effect
Some conjunctive adverbs can indicate the cause and effect of an action. In this case, the first clause expresses the cause, and the second clause expresses the effect. These conjunctive adverbs include:
Take a look at some examples:
She couldn't attend the swimming competition
They have had many problems;
The company saw a decrease in profits this quarter;
2. Adding Details
Conjunctive adverbs can also add an idea or a detail to the first clause. Here are some of the conjunctive adverbs used to add details:
- in addition
We have used wood to make this bridge.
I study Italian,
Conjunctive adverbs can also be used to compare two ideas. One idea is in the first clause, and the second idea comes after the conjunctive adverb. Examples of comparative conjunctive adverbs are:
We can watch a movie, or
The mushrooms were delicious.
Indicating the contrast between two ideas is another use of conjunctive adverbs. Look at some examples of conjunctive adverbs that show contrast:
John prefers to work in the mornings,
I started to cry in front of every one,
5. Providing Examples
In order to explain what you mean or to support an argument, you can provide examples or evidence. You can use conjunctive adverbs to introduce these examples:
- for example
- for instance
- that is
Take a look at the following examples:
I love to eat all kinds of fruit,
Sometimes you need to sum up your argument after stating all the details. You can use some conjunctive adverbs to do that:
- in conclusion
- in summary
- to sum up
- in brief
- in short
We talked and I cried then he started making excuses.
These small particles can cause cancer and different kinds of disease.
7. Showing Sequence
My cousin cooked the dinner
She was acting weird.
8. Showing Emphasis
Conjunctive adverbs can be used to put emphasis on a clause. Emphatic conjunctive adversb connect two similar thoughts, with the second thought being more emphatic. Take a look at some examples of these adverbs:
- of course
She's a talented musician;
He is late again,
9. Indicating Time
Conjunctive adverbs can also show time. They tell us when the first clause happened and when the second clause happened. Examples of conjunctive adverbs that show time are:
She moved out last September and I haven't seen her
Liam is getting married in June.
Conjunctive Adverbs: Punctuation Rules
Full Stop, Semicolon, or Comma?
If the clauses before and after the conjunctive adverb are independent and can stand alone as complete sentences, a
Nina runs a catering company.
To link two independent clauses in one sentence, conjunctive adverbs are often followed by a comma or themselves follow a semicolon. Check out the examples.
You need to try harder;
We wanted to play outside;
Conjunctive adverbs can be easily used at the beginning of the first clause. The only important point is that in this position, they must be followed by a comma.
A conjunctive adverb like most adverbs can appear almost anywhere in the clause. When it appears in the middle of the clause, it is usually set off by commas on either side.
I couldn't buy you a suitable present,
You had every right to say that. It was,
Conjunctive Adverbs: Placement
Conjunctive adverbs commonly appear:
- at the beginning of the sentence
- between the subject and the first verb
- at the end of the sentence
She already had a lot of experience.
This isn't a job that needs a team work; a single person,
'Every man must die.' 'We will die
- What Are Conjunctive Adverbs?
- Conjunctive Adverbs: Placement
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