# CEFR C2 Vocabulary - Physics

Here you will learn all the essential words for talking about Physics, collected specifically for level C2 learners.

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string theory
[noun]
a scientific idea that all particles are tiny vibrating strings, not point-like dots, and these vibrations create different particles and forces
diffraction
[noun]
the bending, spreading, and interference of waves as they encounter obstacles or pass through narrow openings, often observed in the behavior of light, sound, or other waves
quark
[noun]
a fundamental particle combining to form protons and neutrons, with fractional electric charge and six flavors
lepton
[noun]
a fundamental particle with half-integer spin, including electrons and their heavier counterparts, as well as neutrinos
[noun]
a tiny particle made up of even smaller parts called quarks, like protons and neutrons
velocity
[noun]
the speed at which something moves in a specific direction
amplitude
[noun]
(physics) the maximum distance a vibrating material, sound wave, etc. such as a pendulum travels from its first position
fermion
[noun]
tiny particles that make up matter and have a property called spin, like the building blocks of atoms
boson
[noun]
a tiny particle with whole-number spin, such as photons or the Higgs boson, often associated with carrying fundamental forces or giving mass to other particles
centripetal force
[noun]
the force that acts on an object moving in a circular path, directed toward the center of the circle or the axis of rotation, preventing the object from moving in a straight line
doppler effect
[noun]
the change in frequency or wavelength of a wave in relation to an observer who is moving relative to the source of the wave, producing a shift in pitch or color
kinetic energy
[noun]
the energy possessed by an object due to its motion, defined as one-half the mass of the object multiplied by the square of its velocity, expressed by the equation KE = 0.5 * m * v^2
dark matter
[noun]
(physics) an invisible substance that makes up most of the universe's mass, detectable only through its gravitational effects
antimatter
[noun]
(physics) matter consisting of elementary particles that are the antiparticles of those of regular matter
mass
[noun]
(physics) the property of matter that gives it weight in a gravitational field and is a measure of its inertia
quantum
[noun]
the smallest possible amount of a particular quantity that cannot be divided any further
acceleration
[noun]
(physics) the increase in velocity over time
momentum
[noun]
the strength of a moving object determined by multiplying how heavy it is by how fast it is going
photon
[noun]
a fundamental particle of light that carries electromagnetic energy and exhibits both particle-like and wave-like properties
inertia
[noun]
the tendency of an object to resist changes in its state of motion, whether at rest or in uniform motion, and to remain in its current state unless acted upon by an external force
oscillation
[noun]
(physics) the back-and-forth motion of an object between two end points
reflection
[noun]
the action or process where a wave, such as light or sound, bounces back from a surface instead of passing through
Young's modulus
[noun]
a measure of a material's stiffness or elasticity in physics
uncertainty principle
[noun]
a theory stating that the exact position and momentum of a particle cannot be measured precisely at the same time
joule
[noun]
the unit of energy in the International System of Units
neutrino
[noun]
a very small, electrically neutral particle that rarely interacts with matter
space-time
[noun]
the theory that adds the notion of time to that of a three-dimensional space
nuclear fission
[noun]
the process or action of splitting a nucleus into two or more parts resulting in the release of a significant amount of energy
electromagnetic