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CEFR C2 Vocabulary - Philosophy

Here you will learn all the essential words for talking about Philosophy, collected specifically for level C2 learners.

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CEFR C2 Vocabulary
dialectic
[noun]
a method of uncovering the truth about something by comparing contradicting ideas and considering different theories
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weltanschauung
[noun]
a person's overall philosophical perspective or worldview
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nihilism
[noun]
a system of thought that considers life as meaningless and rejects religious beliefs, moral principles, legal rules, etc.
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utilitarianism
[noun]
the doctrine that the best measure or decision is the one that satisfies the majority of people
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stoicism
[noun]
an ancient Greek philosophy that values virtue and encourages living in harmony with nature's divine Reason
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solipsism
[noun]
a philosophical concept or belief system that asserts the self as the only reality and that only the individual's mind is sure to exist
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ontology
[noun]
the branch of philosophy that is concerned with concepts such as existence, being, and reality
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monism
[noun]
a philosophical theory asserting that all of reality is fundamentally unified and derived from a single substance or principle
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objectivism
[noun]
a philosophy that emphasizes individual rights, reason, and laissez-faire capitalism
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subjectivism
[noun]
a notion in philosophy according to which knowledge, moral values, and ethical obligations are subjective and there is no external or objective truth
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absurdism
[noun]
the belief that life is inherently meaningless, yet individuals can create their own meaning
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teleology
[noun]
the study of purpose, design, and final causes in the natural world, exploring the idea that things have inherent goals or intentions
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cogito
[noun]
the philosophy illustrating the core acknowledgment of one's existence through the act of thinking
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monad
[noun]
a fundamental, indivisible entity or substance, often associated with Leibnizian philosophy, possessing inherent characteristics and reflecting the entire universe from its unique perspective
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pragmatism
[noun]
a philosophical movement that emerged in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, emphasizing the practical consequences and real-world effectiveness of beliefs, theories, and actions
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noumenon
[noun]
a philosophical term referring to the intrinsic nature of a thing, independent of human perception, in contrast to phenomena which are how things appear to human observers
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transcendence
[noun]
the state of surpassing ordinary experience to reach higher understanding or existence
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empiricism
[noun]
a theory stating that all knowledge is derived from experience
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cynicism
[noun]
a doubtful view toward others' honesty or intentions
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Taoism
[noun]
a Chinese philosophy focusing on living in harmony with the Tao, the fundamental principle of the universe
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libertarianism
[noun]
a philosophy advocating minimal government intervention and prioritizing individual freedom
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dualism
[noun]
the belief that reality consists of two fundamental and opposing components, such as mind and body or good and evil
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fatalism
[noun]
the belief that events and outcomes are predetermined and inevitable, with little or no control by individuals
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deconstruction
[noun]
a philosophy method that reveals and challenges underlying assumptions in texts and concepts
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hedonism
[noun]
a system of belief that the highest of good is when one is in the pursuit of pleasure
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Cartesian
[adjective]
related to the philosophical concepts of René Descartes, particularly his focus on rationalism and mind-body dualism
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Kantian
[adjective]
relating to the philosophical principles advocated by Immanuel Kant, focusing on rationality and morality
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socratic
[adjective]
related to the teaching or method of questioning used by the ancient Greek philosopher Socrates
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transcendental
[adjective]
relating to a system of thought emphasizing intuition and spirituality over empirical evidence, seeking to understand reality beyond the physical world
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tenet
[noun]
a fundamental belief or principle that is central to a system of thought, philosophy, or religion
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