# CEFR C2 Vocabulary - Mathematics

Here you will learn all the essential words for talking about Mathematics, collected specifically for level C2 learners.

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algorithm
[noun]
a finite sequence of well-defined, mathematical instructions for completing a specific task or solving a problem
variance
[noun]
a measure of the dispersion or spread of a set of data points in statistics, representing the average squared deviation from the mean
derivative
[noun]
the rate at which a function changes with respect to its independent variable, representing the slope of the tangent line to the function's graph
integral
[noun]
a mathematical concept representing the total accumulation of a quantity, often represented by the area under a curve on a graph
limit
[noun]
the value that a function or sequence approaches as its input or index gets close to a particular value
catastrophe theory
[noun]
a branch of mathematics that studies and classifies phenomena characterized by sudden shifts in behavior arising from small changes in circumstances
differential
[noun]
(mathematics) a really small change in a function or variable
logarithm
[noun]
a mathematical function that represents the exponent to which a fixed number, called the base, must be raised to produce a given number
prime
[noun]
a natural number greater than 1 that has no positive divisors other than 1 and itself
vector
[noun]
an ordered set of numbers that describes both magnitude and direction, commonly used to represent quantities like displacement, velocity, or force in physics and engineering
theorem
[noun]
a statement or proposition that has been proven to be true based on previously established axioms, definitions, and other theorems within a particular mathematical or logical system
permutation
[noun]
(mathematics) a rearrangement of a set of elements in a specific order or sequence
eigenvalue
[noun]
a special number used in linear algebra to describe how vectors change during transformations
set theory
[noun]
a branch of mathematics that deals with the study of sets, which are collections of distinct objects, and their properties, relationships, and operations
polynomial
[noun]
a mathematical expression with variables raised to powers and combined using arithmetic operations
integration
[noun]
a mathematical operation that calculates the accumulation of quantities, represented as the area under a curve on a graph
matrix multiplication
[noun]
a mathematical operation that combines two matrices to produce a new matrix, calculated by multiplying rows and columns