Scientifically Speaking

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21 min
Essential Vocabulary for the GRE - Scientifically Speaking

Essential Vocabulary for the GRE
zoologynoun

a branch of science that deals with animals

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botanynoun

the scientific study of plants, their structure, genetics, classification, etc.

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synthesisnoun

the act of producing a substance that exists in living beings

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antigennoun

any foreign substance in the body that can trigger a response from the immune system

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cortisolnoun

a steroid hormone that the body produces and is used in medicine to help cure skin diseases

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clonenoun

a cell or a group of cells created through a natural or artificial process from a source that they are genetically identical to

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dominantadjective

(of genes) causing a person to inherit a particular physical feature, even if it is only present in one parent's genome

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fetusnoun

an offspring of a human or animal that is not born yet, particularly a human aged more than eight weeks after conception

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gene poolnoun

all of the genes that are available within breeding populations of a particular species of animal or plant

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genomenoun

the complete set of genetic material of any living thing

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incubationnoun

maintaining something at the most favorable temperature for its development

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lymphnoun

a colorless liquid consisting of white blood cells that helps to prevent infections from spreading

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membranenoun

a thin sheet of tissue that separates or covers the inner parts of an organism

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to mutateverb

to cause or experience genetic changes

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neurotransmitternoun

a chemical substance that transmits messages from a neuron to another one or to a muscle

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symbiosisnoun

the relation between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other

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specimennoun

an example regarded as typical of its class

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to secreteverb

(of a cell, gland, or organ) to produce and release a liquid substance in the body

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propagationnoun

the act of producing offspring or multiplying by such production

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pigmentationnoun

the deposition of pigment in animals or plants or human beings

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physiologynoun

the field of science that studies the function or interactions among organisms

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to ovulateverb

(of a female animal or human) to produce an ovum from the ovary

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nucleusnoun

(biology) the part of a cell that contains most of the genetic information

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metabolismnoun

the chemical processes through which food is changed into energy for the body to use

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carbon datingnoun

a method used for measuring how old an organic material is by calculating the amount of carbon they contain

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cyberneticsnoun

(biology) the field of science concerned with processes of communication and control (especially the comparison of these processes in biological and artificial systems)

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pathologynoun

a branch of medical science primarily focusing on the study of the causes and effects of disease or injury

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vivisectionnoun

the act of operating on living animals (especially in scientific research)

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aerodynamicsnoun

the branch of mechanics that deals with the motion of gases (especially air) and their effects on bodies in the flow

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volatileadjective

evaporating readily at normal temperatures and pressures

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vacuumnoun

a space that is utterly devoid of matter

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thermaladjective

relating to or connected with heat

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refractionnoun

the change in direction of a propagating wave (light or sound) when passing from one medium to another

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particlenoun

(physics) any of the smallest units that energy or matter consists of, such as electrons, atoms, molecules, etc.

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to oscillateverb

move or swing from side to side regularly

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nuclear fissionnoun

the process or action of splitting a nucleus into two or more parts resulting in the release of a significant amount of energy

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nuclear fusionnoun

(physics) the reaction in which two nuclei join together and produce energy

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momentumnoun

the product of a body's mass and its velocity

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isotopenoun

one of two or more atoms with the same atomic number but with different numbers of neutrons

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kineticadjective

relating to the motion of material bodies and the forces associated therewith

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