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CEFR C2 Vocabulary - Biology

Here you will learn all the essential words for talking about Biology, collected specifically for level C2 learners.

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CEFR C2 Vocabulary
ribosome
[noun]
a tiny structure within cells that assembles proteins by reading the genetic instructions carried by messenger RNA
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Golgi apparatus
[noun]
a cellular organelle involved in the processing, packaging, and distribution of proteins and lipids within the cell, consisting of a stack of flattened membrane sacs called cisternae
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lysosome
[noun]
a small, enzyme-filled sac in a cell that breaks down waste materials and unwanted substances
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mitochondrion
[noun]
an organelle that is abundantly present in most cells and is responsible for energy production
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chloroplast
[noun]
a plant cell organelle that uses sunlight to produce energy and make glucose through photosynthesis
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nucleotide
[noun]
a molecule that forms the basic building block of DNA and RNA, consisting of a sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
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polypeptide
[noun]
a linear chain of amino acids linked by peptide bonds, forming a primary structure of a protein
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organelle
[noun]
a specialized, membrane-bound structure within a cell that performs specific functions, contributing to the cell's overall structure and function
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vacuole
[noun]
a cell organelle in plants, fungi, and some protists that stores nutrients, manages waste, and helps maintain cell pressure
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centriole
[noun]
a pair of small cylinders near the nucleus in animal cells, organizing cell division by forming the mitotic spindle
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histone
[noun]
a type of protein that plays a structural role in the packaging of DNA into nucleosomes, fundamental units of chromatin
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telomere
[noun]
a repetitive DNA sequence at the end of a linear chromosome, protecting it from deterioration during replication, and playing a role in cellular aging and cancer development
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phenotype
[noun]
the observable physical and behavioral characteristics of an organism, resulting from the interaction of its genotype (genetic makeup) with the environment
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homeostasis
[noun]
the tendency of an organism or cell to regulate its internal environment and maintain a stable, balanced condition, despite external changes
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translation
[noun]
the process by which the information encoded in the sequence of nucleotides in DNA is converted into a functional product, typically a protein
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transcription
[noun]
the process by which a segment of DNA is used as a template to synthesize a complementary RNA molecule
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replication
[noun]
the process by which an organism duplicates its genetic material, particularly the copying of DNA in cell division
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codon
[noun]
a sequence of three adjacent nucleotides in mRNA that codes for a specific amino acid during protein synthesis or serves as a start or stop signal in the translation process
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symbiosis
[noun]
a close and often long-term interaction between two different species living in close physical association, typically to the advantage of both
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ameba
[noun]
a single-celled, microscopic organism belonging to the group of protozoa, characterized by a flexible cell membrane and the absence of a fixed body shape
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prokaryote
[noun]
a simple, single-celled organism that lacks a true nucleus and membrane-bound organelles, such as bacteria and archaea
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chlorophyll
[noun]
a green pigment found in all green plants and cyanobacteria that is responsible for the absorption of the sunlight needed for the photosynthesis process
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capsid
[noun]
the protein coat of a virus that encases its genetic material and helps it attach to and enter host cells during infection
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eukaryote
[noun]
a type of living thing with cells that have a nucleus and other structures enclosed in membranes, like plants, animals, fungi, and some microorganisms
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ovum
[noun]
a mature, female reproductive cell or egg, typically larger than a sperm cell, capable of fusing with a sperm cell during fertilization to form a zygote
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pepsin
[noun]
an enzyme produced in the stomach that helps in the digestion of proteins by breaking them down into smaller peptides
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adenosine triphosphate
[noun]
a molecule that carries energy within cells, composed of adenine, a ribose sugar, and three phosphate groups
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cytoskeleton
[noun]
a network of protein fibers in a cell that gives it shape, supports its structure, and aids in movement
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